Editorial comment • Use latex gloves and safety glasses when handling this med- ication; avoid contact with skin as well as inhalation purchase discount levitra oral jelly on line. Corticosteroids are sometimes helpful in treating this problem purchase levitra oral jelly without a prescription, but it may also be fatal order generic levitra oral jelly on-line. Mechanism of action: Depletes adrenergic nerve terminals of norepinephrine; this decreases adrenergic stimulation of the myocardium. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: creatinine clearance 10–60 mL/min; reduce dose by 50–75%; creatinine clearance<10 mL/min: reduce dose by 75%. For treatment of ventricular fibrillation or life-threatening refractory ventricular arrhythmias, there is no con- traindication to using bretylium. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: hypotension, pulmonary hypertension, aortic stenosis. Advice to patient: If ambulation is permitted, change position slowly, in particular from recumbent to upright, to minimize orthostatic hypotension. Clinically important drug interactions • Other antiarrhythmic agents increase effects/toxicity of bretylium. Patient should remain in supine position under close supervision for postural hypotension until tolerance develops to this effect. Mechanism of action: Prolactin inhibition: inhibits prolactin secretion from anterior pituitary. Anti-Parkinson effects: stimu- lates dopamine receptors in the brain, thus improving symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Onset of Action Duration Hyperprolactinemia 2 h 24 h Parkinson’s disease 30–90 min No data Acromegaly 1–2 h 4–8 h Food: Take with food or milk. Contraindications: Severe ischemic heart disease, peripheral vas- cular disease, sensitivity to ergot alkaloids. Warnings/precautions: Use with caution in patients with kidney disease, liver disease. Advice to patients • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of bromocriptine: sympa- thomimetics, diuretics. Editorial comments: Alarge percentage of patients will experience mild to moderate side effects from bromocriptine, particularly with higher doses (>20 mg/d). In postpartum studies, only 3% of patients needed to discontinue therapy because of side effects. Although brompheniramine is considered compatible with breastfeeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics, it is stated to be contraindicated by one manufacturer. Warnings/precautions • Use with extreme caution in patients with active peptic ulcer, severe coronary artery disease, symptomatic prostatic hypertro- phy. Advice to patient • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known. Editorial comments: This drug is available in combination with other agents, including pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, phenyl- propanolamine, aspirin, acetaminophen. Warnings and precautions, side effects, etc, of other ingredients should be kept in mind when prescribing. Mechanism of action: Inhibits elaboration of many of the media- tors of allergic inflammation, eg, leukotrienes and other products of the arachidonic acid cascade. Maintenance: reduce initial dose to smallest amount necessary to control symptoms. Warnings/precautions • If patient is transferred from systemic corticosteroid to inhala- tion drug, symptoms of steroid withdrawal may result. Alternatively, adre- neal insufficiency may occur: weakness, fatigue, nausea, anorexia. This may minimize the development of dry mouth, hoarseness, and oral fungal infection. Parameters to monitor • Signs and symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency, particu- larly in response to stress. If these occur, the dose of systemic steroid should be increased followed by slower withdrawal. Editorial comments • Inhaled corticosteroids are the drugs of choice for patients with refractory symptoms on prn adrenergic agonist bron- chodilators. However, there is considerable controversy with respect to the beneficial use of higher than recommended inhalation doses of these drugs. Mechanism of action: Inhibits sodium and chloride resorption in proximal part of ascending loop of Henle. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides, anuria, hepa- tic coma, severe electrolyte depletion. Editorial comments • This drug is listed without detail in the Physician’s Desk Reference, 54th edition, 2000. Class of drug: Local and regional anesthetic Mechanism of action: Reversibly inhibits initiation and conduc- tion of nerve impulses near site of injection. Contraindications: Hypersensitivity for amide-type local anes- thetic (eg, lidocaine), sensitivity to sodium metabisulfate (in prepa- rations containing epinephrine), obstetrical paracervical block. Warnings/precautions • Use local anethetics plus vasoconstrictor (eg, epinephrine, nor- epinephrine) with caution in patients with the following con- ditions: peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, administration of general anesthetics. Use with extreme cau- tion for lumbar and caudal epidural anesthesia in patients with the following conditions: spinal deformities, existing neurologic dis- ease, severe uncontrolled hypotention, septicemia. Any increase in heart rate and sys- tolic pressure within 45 seconds (the epinephrine response) would indicate that the injection is intravascular. The necessary means must be avail- able to manage this condition (dantrolene, oxygen, supportive measures). Advice to patient: Be aware that there will be a loss of sensation for several hours after the injection. At the first sign of a change that suggests onset of toxicity, administer oxygen and stop drug. Establish and maintain a patent airway, begin assisted ventilation, and administer 100% oxygen. Resuscitation equipment and drugs, as well as oxygen, should be available for immediate use. Mechanism of action: Binds to opiate receptors and blocks ascending pain pathways. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: creatinine clearance <30 mL/min: 50–100 mg q12h Maximum: 200 mg. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: head injury with increased intracranial pressure, serious alco- holism, prostatic hypertrophy, chronic pulmonary disease, severe liver or kidney disease, postoperative patients with pulmonary dis- ease, disorders of biliary tract.
Mechanism of inhibition of trypanothione reductase and glutathione reductase by trivalent organic arsenicals order levitra oral jelly 20 mg. Locus specificity determinants in the multifunctional yeast silencing protein Sir2 purchase generic levitra oral jelly pills. Metacyclogenesis is a major determinant of Leishmania promastigote virulence and attenuation levitra oral jelly 20 mg otc. Hydrogen peroxide induces apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes. Ligation of Fc receptor of macrophages stimulates protein kinase C and anti-leishmanial activity. Spraying houses in the Peruvian Andes with lambda-cyhalothrin protects residents against cutaneous leishmaniasis. Microbial compounds selectively induce Th1 cell- promoting or Th2 cell-promoting dendritic cells in vitro with diverse th cell-polarizing signals. Visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan: parasite identification in humans and dogs; host-parasite relationships. Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan disrupts phagosome microdomains in J774 macrophages. Trypanothione- dependent synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides by Trypanosoma brucei ribonucleotide reductase. Disruption of the trypanothione reductase gene of Leishmania decreases its ability to survive oxidative stress in macrophages. Heterochromatin silencing and locus repositioning linked to regulation of virulence genes in Plasmodium falciparum. Modulation of gene expression in human macrophages treated with the anti-leishmania pentavalent antimonial drug sodium stibogluconate. Improvement of a direct agglutination test for field studies of visceral leishmaniasis. Stage-specific activity of pentavalent antimony against Leishmania donovani axenic amastigotes. American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (tegumentary): a diagnostic challenge. In vitro antileishmanial activity of amphotericin B loaded in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanospheres. Nepsilon-thioacetyl-lysine: a multi-facet functional probe for enzymatic protein lysine Nepsilon-deacetylation. Tryparedoxin peroxidase of Leishmania donovani: molecular cloning, heterologous expression, specificity, and catalytic mechanism. Telomeric heterochromatin propagation and histone acetylation control mutually exclusive expression of antigenic variation genes in malaria parasites. Anticancer compounds as leishmanicidal drugs: challenges in chemotherapy and future perspectives. Sir2 regulates skeletal muscle differentiation as a potential sensor of the redox state. Ultrastructural changes in parasites induced by nanoparticle-bound pentamidine in a Leishmania major/mouse model. Development of a semi-automated colorimetric assay for screening anti-leishmanial agents. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: antigen-gene polymorphism, taxonomy and clinical pleomorphism. Macrophage activation by polymeric nanoparticles of polyalkylcyanoacrylates: activity against intracellular Leishmania donovani associated with hydrogen peroxide production. Domestic dog ownership in Iran is a risk factor for human infection with Leishmania infantum. Interleukin 10 production correlates with pathology in human Leishmania donovani infections. Seroconversion against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva concurrent with the development of anti-Leishmania chagasi delayed-type hypersensitivity. Visceral leishmaniasis: current status of control, diagnosis, and treatment, and a proposed research and development agenda. Drug targeting in Leishmania donovani infections using tuftsin-bearing liposomes as drug vehicles. Comparison of receptors required for entry of Leishmania major amastigotes into macrophages. The effects of carbon dioxide and oxygen upon the growth and in vitro transformation of Leishmania mexicana mexicana. Detection of high rates of in-village transmission of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan. Lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania suppresses agonist-induced interleukin 1 beta gene expression in human monocytes via a unique promoter sequence. Investigation into the immunological effects of miltefosine, a new anticancer agent under development. Potential role for interleukin-10 in the immunosuppression associated with kala azar. Purification and structural characterization of a filamentous, mucin-like proteophosphoglycan secreted by Leishmania parasites. Lipophosphoglycan is not required for infection of macrophages or mice by Leishmania mexicana. Mechanism of nicotinamide inhibition and transglycosidation by Sir2 histone/protein deacetylases. Changing response to diamidine compounds in cases of kala- azar unresponsive to antimonial. Impaired expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at early stages of infection with Leishmania amazonensis. The biological and immunomodulatory properties of sand fly saliva and its role in the establishment of Leishmania infections. The vectorial competence of Phlebotomus sergenti is specific for Leishmania tropica and is controlled by species-specific, lipophosphoglycan-mediated midgut attachment. Leishmania donovani infection in scid mice: lack of tissue response and in vivo macrophage activation correlates with failure to trigger natural killer cell-derived gamma interferon production in vitro. Phenotype of recombinant Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi which over-express trypanothione reductase. Dichotomy of protective cellular immune responses to human visceral leishmaniasis. Internalization of Leishmania mexicana complex amastigotes via the Fc receptor is required to sustain infection in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease.
If strong attractive forces exist between polymer and water buy levitra oral jelly with american express, absorption of water by the polymeric network is thermodynamically favored buy generic levitra oral jelly 20mg. By contrast discount 20 mg levitra oral jelly free shipping, if the polymer is poorly solvated, each polymer unit prefers to stick together in order to minimize its exposure to the solvent. In this case the polymeric network tends to collapse or shrink, liberating the solvent out of the polymeric network. Intrigued by the idea that a drug delivery system may make use of such changes in physical properties of a polymeric network, researchers around the world orchestrated considerable efforts to develop innovative hydrogels. Their research has aimed at the discovery of hydrogels that display a sudden change in properties in response to environmental stimuli including pH, temperature, ionic strength, electromagnetic radiation, electric fields, shear, sonic radiation, enzyme substrates or affinity ligands. Variations in the chemical structure of a hydrogel and the composition of a solvent make it possible to fabricate such responsive hydrogels. For example, a hydrogel can either swell a hundred times in volume or collapses in response to a subtle change in temperature as little as a 1 °C. Other hydrogels do not swell or collapse, but their physical property changes from sol to gel or vice versa. Due to the softness and flexibility of hydrogels, a hydrogel- based implantable device would provide minimal friction to surrounding tissues and house delicate materials, especially proteins or cells, without causing damage to them. The low interfacial tension between the hydrogel surface and biological fluids would minimize protein adsorption and cell adhesion, thereby displaying excellent biocompatibility. The SmartGel, previously mentioned in the context of vaginal drug delivery, is an example of temperature-sensitive hydrogels. It is a viscoelastic soft gel at room temperature but becomes much firmer at body temperature. This interesting property allows the gel to be used as a shoe insert to tailor the shape of the shoe to the need of an individual wearer. An aqueous solution of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has a critical transition temperature at 32 ~ 37 °C. Above the critical transition temperature, however, polymer strands interact with one another to make a gel structure. A similar change is also observed with the graft copolymer of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and polyacry lamide. Its interesting gellation tendency is utilized to immobilize cells inside the gel matrix. For example, a polymeric solution containing islets of Langerhans (insulin-releasing pancreatic cells) is loaded into a pouch with a semipermeable membrane. When the pouch is implanted, the solution becomes a gel to serve as a matrix to immobilize the cells. Responding to rising glucose levels in diabetic patients, the islets would secrete insulin to maintain a normal glycemic level. It was demonstrated that free islets of Langerhans dispersed in a solution tended to aggregate and lost their viability quickly, while the cells immobilized in the gel matrix remained intact and viable much longer. Graft copolymers of poloxamers and either poly(acrylic acid) or chitosan change from a sol to a gel at temperature above 37 °C. The appearing gel forms a stable matrix that can retain a drug for its sustained release. At room temperature, gellation is followed by a further increase in the polymer concentration due to packing of the micelles. Interestingly, the gel is changed into a sol at an elevated temperature such as 45 °C. Upon subcutaneous injection of the polymeric solution into the body (37 °C), a gel is formed immediately. If a drug is dissolved in the polymeric solution prior to the injection, the gel would function as a sustained release matrix for the entrapped drug. The critical gel-sol transition temperature is conveniently modified by varying the length of each block and molecular weight of the triblock polymer. An application of such technology has been in the development of biomimetic secretory granules for drug delivery applications. Secretory granules within certain cells consist of a polyanionic polymer network encapsulated within a lipid membrane. The polymer network, which contains biological mediators such as histamine, exists in a collapsed state as a consequence of the internal pH and ionic content which is maintained by the lipid surrounding the granule. Release of histamine from such granules is initiated through the fusion of the granule with the cell membrane exposing the polyanionic internal matrix to the extracellular environment. The change in pH and ionic strength results in ion exchange and swelling of the polyanionic network which in turn causes release of the endogenous mediators. An environmentally responsive, hydrogel microsphere coated with a lipid bilayer has recently been shown to act as a secretory granule mimic (Figure 16. Disruption of the lipid bilayer by electroporation was shown to cause the microgel particles to swell and release their drug. The use of these systems in conjunction with temperature-sensitive lipids offers potential to target drugs to areas of inflammation or to achieve site-specific, pulsatile drug delivery through the localized external application of ultrasound or heating to disrupt the lipid bilayers. This concept may be visualized by an example of an electrical stimulus-sensitive hydrogel. If it is fabricated into a porous membrane of which edges are fixed in place, the presence and removal of the stimulus would start and stop the exchange of a drug with body fluids. For example, if the implant is exposed to the stimulus, pores in the hydrogel membrane would become wide-open to turn on the chemical valve. Subsequently, the contents of the implant are discharged at the site of implantation. The removal of the stimulus turns off the valve to contract the membrane pores, thereby stopping the flow of the contents. The release of a drug from such an implant, therefore, is at the operator’s control. Such implants have potential to release a drug in a 387 pulsatile manner, according to patients’ biological needs. The focus of such research has been towards the delivery of insulin in response to changes in glucose levels. Preparation of glucose-sensitive phase-reversible hydrogels demands two fundamental requirements: glucose-specificity and reversible cross-linking (i. A highly specific interaction between glucose and concanavalin A (Con A) was used to form physical cross-links between glucose-containing polymer chains. Since Con A exists as a tetramer at physiological pH and each subunit has a glucose binding site, Con A can function as a cross-linking agent for glucose- containing polymer chains. Because of the non-covalent interaction between glucose and Con A, the formed cross-links are reversible (Figure 16.
Gentamicin sulfate is the sulfate salt of gentamicin tamicin sulfate equivalent to 0 buy discount levitra oral jelly 20 mg on line. Immediately The suppository mass is manufactured at a temperature of transfer the hot mass to the heated storage ves- 120°C cheap 20 mg levitra oral jelly otc. Care must be taken to see that molten suppository sel or heated vessel of suppository ﬁlling mass does not accidentally spill on the person buy 20 mg levitra oral jelly mastercard. Glycerin Suppositories Bill of Materials Scale (mg/suppository) Item Material Name Quantity/1000 Suppositories (g) 900. Formulations of Semisolid Drugs 165 Glycolic Acid Cream Bill of Materials Scale (g/100 g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 3. Gramicidin, Neomycin, Nystatin, and Triamcinolone Ointment Bill of Materials Scale (g/100 g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 0. Rinse homogenizer with liquid parafﬁn and add heat to 70°C to melt; transfer to Becomix rinsings. Mix till ointment is smooth, transfer to a stain- twice with ﬁne-gap setting to make smooth dis- less steel vessel, and ﬁll. Charge items 1, 2 (balance quantity), 3, and 6 in a separate stainless steel vessel and homogenize 166 Handbook of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Formulations: Semisolid Products Halobetasol Propionate Cream and Ointment The cream contains halobetasol propionate, a synthetic halobetasol propionate in a cream base of cetyl alcohol, corticosteroid for topical dermatological use. The corti- glycerin, isopropyl isostearate, isopropyl palmitate, ste- costeroids constitute a class of primarily synthetic steroids areth-21, diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone, used topically as an anti-inﬂammatory and antipruritic methylisothiazolinone, and water. Heparin Gel-Cream Bill of Materials Scale (g/100 g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 0. Formulations of Semisolid Drugs 167 Hexachlorophen Cream Bill of Materials Scale (mg/g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 45. While both solutions are at 65°–70°C, form the primary emulsion by pumping the aqueous solu- 1. Strain olive oil through voile cloth or equivalent tion from step 5 into the oil mixture from step 3 into a suitable stainless steel-jacketed tank. Homogenize primary emulsion through a Troy ate mix, add cetyl alcohol, lanolin, petrolatum, Mill, or similar device, into the balance of aque- and polysorbate 40 with mixing. Add and dissolve hexachlorophene in the oil emulsion should strained through voile cloth or mix, then add and disperse the simethicone. Cool emulsion to 40°–50°C with agitation glycerin, methylparaben, and borax as puriﬁed under vacuum. Reserve 4 mL of solution from step 5 in a separate container to rinse equipment in step 2. Other formulations include base containing sorbitan sesquioleate, water, aquaphor, cream, which contains hydrocortisone acetate 1% or 2. Hydrocortisone Ointment Bill of Materials Scale (mg/100 g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 1. In a separate vessel, disperse item 1 in item 3, using a spatula, in a water bath maintained at 60°C. Hydrocortisone Acetate Suppositories Hydrocortisone acetate is a corticosteroid designated blended hydrogenated vegetable oil base. Dissolve item 2 in balance of item 9 and a vessel after passing through stainless steel sieve portion of item 5 in a separate vessel and and heat to melt. Hydrocortisone Butyrate Cream and Ointment The cream, ointment, and topical solution contain the base consisting of cetostearyl alcohol, ceteth-20, mineral topical corticosteroid hydrocortisone butyrate, a nonﬂu- oil, white petrolatum, citric acid, sodium citrate, propylpa- orinated hydrocortisone ester. It has the chemical name raben and butylparaben (preservatives), and puriﬁed water. Transfer the oil phase to the aqueous phase in a mixer vessel through mesh by vacuum while stirring at manual mode, 10 rpm, temperature 60°C. Formulations of Semisolid Drugs 171 Hydrocortisone Cream Bill of Materials Scale (mg/g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 70. Heat items 7 and 8 until the active ingredient is dissolved, mix with 1/2, and continue to stir 1. Hydrocortisone Cream Bill of Materials Scale (mg/100 g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 1. Transfer the oil phase from step 2 into step 5 through vacuum transfer while stirring at man- 1. Load items 4–7 in a fat-melting vessel (the oily ual 10 rpm and temperature of 60°C. Cool down to 30°C while mixing at 10 rpm auto dissolve by mixing for 10–15 minutes at mode and under vacuum of 0. Another formulation of cream with aloe ferent types of itches and rashes; it is available in 1% and contains the active ingredient hydrocortisone 1%, and the 0. For 1% cream, the inactive ingredients are inactive ingredients aloe barbadensis gel, aluminum sul- aloe vera, benzyl alcohol, ceteareth-20, cetearyl alcohol, fate, calcium acetate, cetearyl alcohol, glycerin, light min- cetyl palmitate, glycerin, isopropyl myristate, isostearyl eral oil, maltodextrin, methylparaben, potato dextrin, pro- neopentanoate, methylparaben, and puriﬁed water. For the pylparaben, puriﬁed water, sodium cetearyl sulfate, 1% ointment, they are butylparaben, cholesterol, meth- sodium lauryl sulfate, white petrolatum, and white wax. The intensive therapy cream includes cetyl fate, calcium acetate, cetearyl alcohol, glycerin, light min- alcohol, citric acid, glyceryl stearate, isopropyl myristate, eral oil, maltodextrin, methylparaben, potato dextrin, pro- methylparaben, polyoxyl 40 stearate, polysorbate 60, pro- pylparaben, puriﬁed water, sodium cetearyl sulfate, pylene glycol, propylparaben, puriﬁed water, sodium cit- sodium lauryl sulfate, white petrolatum, and white wax. Formulations of Semisolid Drugs 173 Hydrocortisone Gel Bill of Materials Scale (mg/g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 10. Prepare solution of item 4, heat item 5 to 70°C and add slowly to the hot-mixture item 4. Hydrocortisone Gel Bill of Materials Scale (mg/g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 5. Hydrogen Peroxide Ointment Bill of Materials Scale (g/100 g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 5. Add methylparaben and mix the composition at 61°–65°C, draw the oil phase into the to dissolve while maintaining temperature. While mixing and under vacuum, allow the monostearate, and white beeswax and mix mixture to cool gradually to room temperature. Melt the stearyl alcohol and the white petrola- tum on a steam bath and warm to about 75°C. Hydroquinone is struc- In another formulation, the each gram of 4% cream turally related to monobenzone. Add step 4 into step 2 while mixing to minimize hydroxy anisole in a suitable vessel and dis- air entrapment. Formulations of Semisolid Drugs 177 Hydroquinone Cream Bill of Materials Scale (g/100 g) Item Material Name Quantity/kg (g) 1. Add tocopherol to above just before adding the during homogenization add step 4 and also add rest of the ingredients (see below). In a separate container, charge items 1, 8, and 9; dissolve and ﬁlter through polyester ﬁlter.