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At present buy generic forzest 20 mg online erectile dysfunction book, there is rather limited experience with niosomes as a parenteral delivery system and no clear advantages over liposomal systems have been established yet order 20mg forzest visa impotence urinary. The typical pharmaceutical considerations described above were not dealt with seriously in the early days of drug carrier research discount forzest 20mg visa impotence blood pressure, thus early drug-carrier systems were associated with long gestation periods from product development to product marketing. The time-frame associated with the development of a drug targeting concept to a targeted drug product can be illustrated by the “liposome story”. Liposomes were originally used as biochemical tools for the study of cell membrane behaviour in the 1960s; the idea to use them as drug carriers was subsequently developed in the early 1970s. It took more than twenty years to develop the system from a concept to the first commercial parenteral liposome preparation carrying a drug (amphotericin B). Although this may seem 127 like quite a long gestational period, it must be remembered that liposomes were one of the first colloidal carrier systems designed for targeted drug delivery. Comparatively little was known about such systems and many technological and biopharmaceutical hurdles had to be overcome before marketing authorization for the first product could be obtained. Some of these hurdles encountered and solved over the years while developing liposomes as drug carriers include: • Poor quality of the raw material: In the early 1980s, the quality of lipids of several suppliers could vary considerably, both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Interestingly, over the years, the price per unit has dropped considerably while the quality has improved. Therefore a full physicochemical characterization of pharmaceutical liposomes is required in early stages of a development program (Table 5. In later development stages, these quality control assays can be used to obtain regulatory approval and to ensure batch-to-batch consistency. Biochemists, who worked with drug-loaded liposomes in the early days, had a completely different perception of “stability”, reproducibility, upscaling and toxicity than pharmaceutical scientists, who are familiar with the development of pharmaceutical formulations. For example, for a biochemist, a shelf life of a week at −70 °C may be acceptable, whereas a pharmaceutical product would be expected to have a minimum shelf-life of two years, preferably without refrigerator cooling. It took several years and considerable “mental adaptation” to bridge this cultural gap. Currently, quality is ensured by improved purification schemes, the introduction of validated analytical techniques and a better insight into lipid degradation mechanisms leading to better shelf-life conditions (Table 5. In addition, liposomal development has provided fundamental knowledge on the fate of particulate systems in vivo and how this fate can be manipulated for therapeutic gain. It should not exert side-effects, neither on its way to the therapeutic target, nor at the target site, nor during the clearance process. These systems have in common that they are indicated for the treatment of life-threatening diseases like cancer, and severe infectious diseases and, therefore, contribute considerably to our therapeutic armamentarium. It has become apparent that multidisciplinary approaches, employing the combined forces of such disciplines as molecular biology, biotechnology, pathology, pharmacology, immunology, pharmaceutical sciences, engineering, clinical sciences etc. In particular, insights into the anatomical, physiological and pathological constraints to the targeting concept have been growing fast over the past two decades. Moreover, progress in molecular biology and biotechnology allows the engineering of protein structures and their large-scale production, and will have a great impact on drug targeting concepts and the actual production of targeted drug delivery systems. In: Targeting of Drugs: Strategies for Stealth Therapeutic Systems (Gregoriadis, G. How can one realistically extend the blood circulation time of this particulate carrier system keeping in mind that this system should be used in patients? Both polymeric micelles and liposomes are being used as carrier systems for drugs. Human monoclonal antibodies are on the market both for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. A hypothetical anti-leishmanial drug is strongly hydrophilic and positively charged at physiological pH. What targeting system would you recommend to develop if a fast market introduction is desirable? What is a prerequisite to use the concept of “macrophage mediated release of drugs” for therapeutic purposes? Moreover, the cost of oral therapy is generally much lower than that of parenteral therapy. Nevertheless, the oral route is not without disadvantages, particularly with respect to labile drugs such as peptide- and oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals. During the past two decades, numerous novel oral drug delivery systems, such as mucoadhesives, matrix systems, reservoir systems, microparticulates, and colon- specific drug delivery systems have been developed to overcome some of these limitations. It is appropriate to consider gastrointestinal structure in relation to gastrointestinal function. The function of the digestive system is to break down complex molecules, derived from ingested food, into simple ones for absorption into the blood or the lymph. This process occurs in five main phases, within defined regions of the gastrointestinal system: • ingestion (mouth); • fragmentation (mouth and stomach); • digestion (stomach and small intestine); • absorption (small and large intestine); • elimination of waste products (large intestine). There has recently been considerable interest in this site for the systemic delivery of drug moieties. The possibility of transmucosal delivery via the mucous membranes of the oral cavity is discussed in Chapter 7. The stomach The stomach is a sack that serves as a reservoir for food, where fragmentation is completed and digestion initiated. Digestion is the process by which food is progressively broken down by enzymes into molecules small enough to be absorbed; for example, ingested proteins are initially broken down into polypeptides, then further degraded into oligopeptides and finally into di- and tri-peptides and amino acids, which can be absorbed. Although the stomach does not contribute as much as the small intestine to the extent of drug 133 Figure 6. The small intestine The small intestine, comprising the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, is the principal site for the absorption of digestive products from the gastrointestinal tract. The first 25 cm of the small intestine is the duodenum, the main functions of which are to neutralize gastric acid and pepsin and to initiate further digestive processes. Digestive enzymes from the pancreas (which include trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipases) together with bile from the liver, enter the duodenum via the common bile duct at the ampulla of Vater (or hepatopancreatic ampulla). Bile contains excretory products of liver metabolism, some of which act as emulsifying agents necessary for fat digestion. The next segment of the small intestine, the jejunum, is where the major part of food absorption occurs. In addition to the great length of the small intestine, the available surface area is further enhanced by the presence of (Figure 6. The large intestine has two main functions: • to absorb water and electrolytes; • to store and eliminate fecal matter. The submucosa This is a layer of loose connective tissue that supports the epithelium and also contains blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves. The muscularis propria This consists of both an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle and is responsible for peristaltic contraction. The serosa This is an outer layer of connective tissue containing the major vessels and nerves. Four main types of mucosa can be identified, which can be classified according to their main function: • Protective: this is found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and anal canal.
Baldwin D cheap forzest master card kidney transplant and erectile dysfunction treatment, Bobes J purchase 20 mg forzest mastercard new erectile dysfunction drugs 2014, Stein D buy forzest 20mg without prescription impotence medical definition, Scharwachter I, Faure M: Paroxetine in social in the management of phobic disorders. Simpson H, Schneier F, Campeas R, Marshall R, Fallon B, Davies S, Klein D, 175:120-126. Liebowitz M, Gelenberg A, Munjack D: Venlafaxine extended release vs Psychopharmacol 1998, 18:132-135. Liebowitz M, Schneier F, Campeas R, Hollander E, Hatterer J, Fyer A, 2005, 62:190-198. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose comparison of paroxetine and 49:290-300. International Multicenter Clinical Trial Group on Moclobemide in Social in social phobia: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Stein D, Cameron A, Amrein R, Montgomery S: Moclobemide is effective trial of atomoxetine in generalized social anxiety disorder. J Clin and well tolerated in the long-term pharmacotherapy of social anxiety Psychopharmacol 2009, 29:561-564. Noyes R, Moroz G, Davidson J, Liebowitz M, Davidson A, Siegel J, Bell J, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid social anxiety Cain J, Curlik S, Kent T, et al: Moclobemide in social phobia: a controlled disorder. Schneier F, Goetz D, Campeas R, Fallon B, Marshall R, Liebowitz M: rehearsal with nonprofessional therapists. Barnett S, Kramer M, Casat C, Connor K, Davidson J: Efficacy of olanzapine Treatment of social phobia with clonazepam and placebo. J Clin Psychiatry 1990, generalized social anxiety disorder: results from an open-label study 51(Suppl):35-40, discussion 50-33. J Bras Psiquiatr 1997, monotherapy for social anxiety disorder: a placebo-controlled study. Worthington J, Kinrys G, Wygant L, Pollack M: Aripiprazole as an combined clonazepam with paroxetine compared with paroxetine augmentor of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression and monotherapy for generalized social anxiety disorder. Pande A, Feltner D, Jefferson J, Davidson J, Pollack M, Stein M, Lydiard R, antidepressants in preventing relapse in anxiety disorders - a meta- Futterer R, Robinson P, Slomkowski M, et al: Efficacy of the novel analysis. Int Clin generalized social anxiety disorder: results of a double-blind, placebo- Psychopharmacol 2011, 26:243-251. Pande A, Davidson J, Jefferson J, Janney C, Katzelnick D, Weisler R, Greist J, long-term treatment of social anxiety disorder: the 12- to 24-week Sutherland S: Treatment of social phobia with gabapentin: a placebo- extension phase of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Versiani M, Amrein R, Montgomery S: Social phobia: long-term treatment Gabapentin and tiagabine for social anxiety: a randomized, double- outcome and prediction of response–a moclobemide study. Stud Health anxiety and depressive disorders and categorization of generalized Technol Inform 2010, 154:39-43. Behav Res Ther of mood and anxiety disorders among older adults: the National 2010, 48:429-434. Psychophysiology 2008, correlates of generalized anxiety disorder in a national sample of older 45:377-388. Leichsenring F, Salzer S, Jaeger U, Kachele H, Kreische R, Leweke F, newly diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder patients. Actas Esp Ruger U, Winkelbach C, Leibing E: Short-term psychodynamic Psiquiatr 2012, 40:177-186. Am J Psychiatry 2009, between generalized anxiety levels and pain in a community sample: 166:875-881. 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Davidson J, Bose A, Korotzer A, Zheng H: Escitalopram in the treatment Internet treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized of generalized anxiety disorder: double-blind, placebo controlled, controlled trial comparing clinician vs. Paxling B, Almlov J, Dahlin M, Carlbring P, Breitholtz E, Eriksson T, disorder with escitalopram: pooled results from double-blind, placebo- Andersson G: Guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for controlled trials. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008, and paroxetine in the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety 197:675-681. Allgulander C, Hartford J, Russell J, Ball S, Erickson J, Raskin J, Rynn M: adults with generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Davidson J, Du Pont R, Hedges D, Haskins J: Efficacy, safety, and generalized anxiety disorder. Nimatoudis I, Zissis N, Kogeorgos J, Theodoropoulou S, Vidalis A, placebo-controlled study. Pollack M, Zaninelli R, Goddard A, McCafferty J, Bellew K, Burnham D, outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder. A double-blind, Iyengar M: Paroxetine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: randomized, placebo controlled study. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2004, results of a placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage trial. Ball S, Kuhn A, Wall D, Shekhar A, Goddard A: Selective serotonin venlafaxine in nondepressed outpatients with generalized anxiety reuptake inhibitor treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: a double- disorder. Bandelow B, Chouinard G, Bobes J, Ahokas A, Eggens I, Liu S, Eriksson H: analysis of five randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials. Int J safety of pregabalin in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: a Neuropsychopharmacol 2010, 13:305-320. J Clin Psychiatry 2006, Comparison of venlafaxine extended release versus paroxetine for 67:771-782. 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Alerts identified 159 clinically relevant prescribing problems in the elderly order forzest 20mg without prescription erectile dysfunction at age 50, a list established previously by expert consensus generic 20 mg forzest erectile dysfunction after age 40. Each alert identified the nature of the problem and possible consequences and suggested alternative therapy in accordance with the expert consensus purchase on line forzest can erectile dysfunction cause prostate cancer. The primary outcomes were initiation and discontinuation rates of the 159 prescription-related problems. There Study Start: 04/2006 were 2,293 primary care patients prescribed lipid-lowering or Study End: 00/0000 antihypertensive drugs by 59 physicians who were randomized to the adherence tracking and alert system or active medication list alone to determine if the intervention increased drug profile review, changes in cardiovascular drug treatment, and refill adherence in the first 6 months. The secondary outcome of interest examined was the proportion of all prescribed medications that were potentially inappropriate. This 2 X 2 factorial randomization of practice Implementation: 00/0000 sessions and pharmacists resulted in four groups of patients: Study Start: 01/1994 physician intervention, pharmacist intervention, both interventions, Study End: 05/1996 and controls. This 2 X 2 factorial randomization of practice sessions and pharmacists resulted in four groups of patients: physician intervention, pharmacist intervention, both interventions, and controls. Practices wererandomly assigned to 3 arms of the study: Study End: 00/0000 control arm,and 2 intervention arms (an on-demand arm and an alerting arm). Data onpatients requiring treatment and patient treated based onthe two intervention arms were measured and compared. Reports N = 396 patients were printed in the nursing division and placed in patient charts. Pharmacists were not provided information about laboratory monitoring for patients in the usual-care group. Filing an up-to-date children with asthma asthma care plan improved having an up-to-date 14% (p = 0. At follow-up, the rates were statistically different, with lower proportions for intervention residents after adjustment for baseline rates (0. Control group prescribing degraded over time while the intervention group was stable. Alternative logistic regression analysis: significant interaction between group and site, indicating that the efficacy of prompts differed by site. Change in behavior was significantly related to the intervention, although both groups improved (p<0. Overall, for 13 standards including non-medicinal preventive care actions, adherence was significantly improved (53. The alerts also significantly changed the trend in the interacting prescription rate, with a preintervention increasing rate of 1. The absolute increase in the proportion of telephone consults for sore throat was 1. Two of 8 non-medication related preventive care recommendations were significantly improved as well. This pronounced in difference constitutes a higher the intervention rate of drug initiation (2. Hospital emergency physicians found mean effort department visit to use discharge software was within 6 months more difficult than the usual (35. Number of visits to the primary care provider (as recommended) increased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group (difference of 0. In the recommendation control group, physicians s, there were spontaneously instituted the 19% fewer treatment that would have hospital been recommended in 17% of admissions in the instances in which the intervention recommendation was triggered group compared but not issued. Other prescribing (3 12 to 39 year asthma or drugs or drug classes and 4 group related age groups) did not differ (p = 0. No 40 yr, first choice differences were found for drugs for sore those in the cholesterol throats reminder group. Outcome measures were for sum scores for drug volume: lower scores were improvements in prescribing. These were assumed to be due to chance with multiple testing and because they were in the opposite directions. Intervention total number of first patients received 238 dispensings of dispensings of unique targeted targeted medications medications and usual care patients received 361 dispensings (p = 0. The study was stopped primarily due to 2 false-positive alert types: Misidentification of medications as contraindicated in pregnancy by the pharmacy information system and misidentification of pregnancy related to delayed transfer of diagnosis information. However the groups did not differ from each other in mean scores at 3 or 6 months. During the intervention period the rate for computerized group was higher than the control (64% vs. The differences in the recorded vaccination rate between the randomized control group and the three reminder groups are as follows: 19. The number of days of vancomycin per course of treatment was also lower for the physicians in the intervention group, mean of 1. The rate of discontinuation of inappropriate drugs per 1,000 was not different: 67. The proportion of inappropriate was medications that were also reduced potentially inappropriate was also reduced, from 5. Secondary Outcome: When analyzed as a percentage of all medications prescribed by physician subjects, the proportion of medications that were potentially inappropriate was significantly reduced, from 5. Article references for studies across the phases of medication management (and education and reconciliation) by research design Order Reconciliation/ Design Prescribing Dispensing Administering Monitoring Education Communication Other 87,106,121,124,138,169,268,281, 188,190 188,190 203 267,275,287,292,296, 233 Cohort 292,293,297,300,317 301 16,26,27,29,44,59,81,91,93,97, 65,99,172,182-187,189,191 65,99,191,195,197,234, 46,50,99,186,187,197 1,19,57,84,105,113, 249,341 230-232,245 Observational 113,128,135,144,146,153,155, 194,243,265,303,375 265,278,303,375 202,204,206 177,214,223,225,283, 158,162,176,235,244,253,278,375 210,234,240,253 285,286,295,299,315, -377 255,278,280,305,375 329,375 1,3,50,67,73,77,78,85,99,140, 36,133,143,147,211, 151,172-174,177,242,277, 212,224,261,298,311, 280,295,305,368,369 314 17,19,34,58,72,80,82,108,110, 115,119,150,152,154,157,168, 236,266,269,286,294,329 2,4,6,11,14,15,18,20,25,33,43,46, 57,65,69,70,83,84,105,109,111, 156,163,274,276,315 22,35,36,63,64,71,95,98,112,122, 133,145,147,161,175,179,246, 260,261,270,284,288,298,316 7,30,62,76,79,86,92,101 103,114,134,143,149,170,178, 250,259,271,290,291,307,308 C-341 Evidence Table 16. Article references for studies across settings for the phases of medication management (and reconciliation and education) Order Reconciliation/ Setting Prescribing Dispensing Administering Monitoring Education Communication Other 10,13,29,38,39,55,67,73,74,82,90,94, 75,172,185,191,336,342 130,191 205 23,94,107,113,120,129, 127,321 Ambulatory care 100,113,120,129 132,136,166,167,215, 132,136,140,154,157,162,166,167, 217,219 172,236,242,244,266,269,273,281, 221,226,263,275,301, 336,337,342,349,360,370 312,347,367 15,20,21,23,28,41,42,45,48,83,87,95, 12,60,61,127,141,143, 107,118,139,147,161,171,260,270, 147,213,218,228,251, 276,298,304,310,320,347,356,363 267,279,298,309,335, 356,358 9,12,30,47,49,60 62,75,92,96,106,127,141,143,145, 159,160,259,264,291,307,332,357, 361,365 228 Community (school, community centre etc) 113,306 306,343 113,217,306,335,367 Home C-343 Evidence Table 17. Article references for studies across settings for the phases of medication management (and reconciliation and education) (continued) Order Reconciliation/ Setting Prescribing Dispensing Administering Monitoring Education Communication Other 16,26,27,59,73,78,81,85,91,93,97, 99,186-189,192 99,188,195,197,278,303, 46,50,99,186,198 1,19,57,84,89,104,105, 249 230-233,245,313 Hospital 121,125,128,135,144,146,151,153, 194,303,340,348,375 348,351,375 200,202,204,208 117,177,214,217,223, 155,158,174,176,177,235,253,256, 210,241,253,255,278,28 225,263,283,285 277,278,293,305,319,339,340,344, 0,305,346,355,375 287,292,295,299,301, 349,366,368,375,376 315,375 187,197,201,203,206, 1,3,5,17,19,24,34,50,58,72,77,80,82, 207,239,240,254,272, 36,133,137,211,212, 99,104,108,115,119,123,150,152,173, 331,333,352 222,224,228,229,261, 181,248,262,268,280,286,294,295, 311,314 369,371 2,4,6,8,11,14,18,25,31,33,35,43,46, 57,63,69,70,84,88,89,105,109,110, 117,122,124,148,156,163,168,180, 274,276,288,292,315,322,330 7,22,32,36,37,64,71,95,98,112,116, 126,133,137,149,164,169,175,179, 246,247,250,252,261,271,284,289, 308,316,345,354,364 6,79,86,101 103,114,134,165,170,178,237,259, 290,297,300,317,318,334,338,341, 359 40,95,302,377 234,353 234,355,362 40 Long term care (nursing homes) 65,75,99,105,111,167,173,310,350, 65,75,99,182 65,99,188,190,191,195, 99,202 105,167,287,296 233 Pharmacy 371,376 184,188,190,191,243,258,265, 196,265,348,351 348 C-344 Evidence Table 18. Article references for patients studied by phase of medication management and education and reconciliation Order Reconciliation/ Patient Prescribing Dispensing Administering Monitoring Education Communication Other 25,62,70,79,176,294 303 303 203 219 Infants (0 to 2 years) 9,19,41,62,70,176,177,250,294,305,308 303 303 305 19,177,219 Children (2 to 12) 9,19,41,70,74,86,102,127,132,176,177, 19,127,132,177,211,218, 127 245 Adolescents (13 237,250,294,295 219,295,335 to 18) 8,16,17,23,42,58,66,70,74,83,85,89,94, 23,60,61,66,89,94,104, 127,249 245 Adults (19 to 44) 104,108,119,123,131 127,132,133,167,177,211, 133,135,167,177,180,293,295 215,218,219,226,263,275, 295,296,311,335 60,61,86,102,103,106,114,127,139,170, 171,237,250,307 8,16,17,26,35,39,42,55,58,66,70,74,83,85 189 306 66,89,94,104,107,132,136, 127,249,321 245 Middle age (45 to,89,91,94,104,107,108,119,123,131,132,1 166,167,214,215,217,219, 64) 35,136,166,167,180,292,293,295,310,315 225,226,263,275,287,292, 295,296,301,306,315 23,60,61,86,92,96,102,106,112,114,126,1 27,133,139,145,160,170,171,237,300,306 23,60,61,127,133,211,212,,307 218,228,251,267,311,314, 335 3,8,16,17,26,39,42,48,55,65,66,70,83,85, 65,189 65,130 205 23,66,89,94,104,107,117, 249,321 232,245,313 Geriatric (65 plus) 89,91,94,104,107,108,115,117,119,123, 166,167,215,217,219,221, 130,135,166,167,180,242,292,293,295, 225,226,275,287,292,295, 302,310,315 296,312,315 23,60,61,64,92,102,106,112,114,126,133, 60,61,133,211,212,228, 139,159 267,311,314,335 161,164,165,170,171,175,237,297,300, 304 5,22,33,36,49,88,137,289,298 36,137,222,229,279,285, Undifferentiated 298,367 C-346 Evidence Table 20. An electronic chart prompt to decrease orders on aminoglycoside monitoring in proprietary antibiotic prescription to self-pay children. Impact Computer order entry system decreased use of a multifaceted intervention on cholesterol of sliding scale insulin regimens. A trial of education, prompts, and hypnotic prescribing in older hospitalized opinion leaders to improve prescription of patients. Qual Safe Health Care Specificity of computerized physician order 2005;14(4):258-63. The breast cancer management: impact upon impact of computerized physician order physician prescribing behaviour. Impact of Improving antibiotic prescribing for adults computerized physician order entry on with community acquired pneumonia: Does physician time. Pediatrics Guided medication dosing for inpatients 2010;125(4):e770-e777 with renal insufficiency. Do decision support Web-based nurse order entry system for systems influence variation in prescription?
Our literature reviews revealed three important findings: although sustainability is mentioned frequently in the core informatics literature purchase forzest 20mg with mastercard erectile dysfunction in young age, it is poorly and infrequently defined buy cheapest forzest erectile dysfunction icd 10, and none of the articles identified in the primary literature searching done to produce this evidence report explicitly studied sustainability buy forzest 20mg free shipping erectile dysfunction quran. The legislation ties payments specifically to the achievement of advances in health care processes and outcomes. National Coordinator for Health Information Technology at the Department of Health and Human Services, “[this legislation] will lead us toward improvements and sustainability of our health care system that can only be attained with 809 the help of a reliable and secure nationwide electronic health information system. Overall, these features should help clinicians make better medical decisions and potentially avoid preventable errors. Future research should develop an operational definition of sustainability that can 89 be used to study its determinants. Summary overview of meaningful use objectives Source: New England Journal of Medicine, 2010. To what extent does the evidence demonstrate that health care settings (inpatient, ambulatory, long-term care, etc. Implementation Reports of implementation tend to be opinion pieces or descriptive studies. A number of articles looked at some or all of implementation, adoption rates, and factors related to adoption. The general findings for hospitals show that implementation and adoption are generally greater in larger, academic, urban, public hospitals. Adoption in primary care practices tends to increase with younger, recent medical grads, larger practice size, and also with more specialized physicians. They categorized barriers into physician and organizational resistance, cost and lack of capital, and vendor or product immaturity. This would include the workflows, culture, social interactions, and technologies in 822 place. Furukawa and 824 colleagues used national survey data to measure adoption of technologies across the United 92 States. Their analysis supports the findings that hospital size, teaching status, hospital or clinical ownership, and system membership are 790 associated with adoption. Hospitals and primary care are well-studied, especially for the two phases of prescribing and ordering, and monitoring. Gaps are seen in the other phases of medication management, and education and reconciliation. A limited number of studies are carried out in long-term care settings, pharmacies, or with patients at home, or other community settings. Many of the hospital- and clinic-based studies tended to show improvements in process with some, but limited, evidence of clinical improvements. Articles that measure use tend to frame it in the context of adoption and implementation, looking merely to ascertain if systems are used, not how they are used and if they are being used appropriately. Again, the definition of sustainability is not met without the inclusion of economics studies. To be considered a true one-way e-Prescribing system the article had to describe a computer system used by a prescriber to generate a prescription (authorization to supply drug) that is transmitted electronically to a pharmacy information system. Further, for the system to be considered a two-way e-Prescribing system it had to be capable of transmitting a message from dispenser to prescriber by electronic means. This criterion is broadly consistent with the 828 definition of e-Prescribing promulgated under the U. Summary of the Findings 434,549,561,575,579,584-586,645,668,724,730,736,797,800,801,806,829-844 Thirty-three reports were checked for 585 eligibility and only one met the above criteria for inclusion for bidirectional e-Prescribing systems. Nearly all systems self-described by investigators as “e-Prescribing” allowed physicians or other prescribers to generate a prescription through a software application that were later reproduced in paper form prior to being dispensed by a pharmacist (incomplete one-way e- 585 Prescribing). One report described an interrupted time-series study of a two-way e-Prescribing system intended to reduce the time required for prescribers to respond to pharmacist queries and refill requests. The authors did not describe any barriers or facilitators to uptake of the system used in the small pilot study. The following facilitators and barriers are listed in order of high to low frequency of mention in the reviewed literature. Nearly all reports of e-Prescribing implementations in the United States described some financial incentive that was offered 839 to prescribers to adopt an e-Prescribing system. In most of those cases where no financial incentive was offered, the system was adopted by a health system that required its prescribers to adopt the system. Formal endorsement by regulators such as the State Boards of Pharmacy or Medicine seemed necessary enablers for prescribers to adopt e- 736,839 Prescribing systems. A set of messaging standards to enable the electronic flow of prescription information between diverse software platforms have been developed for use in the prescribing and order 834,836,845 communication processes. While not all standards have been judged suitable for 839 implementation, the core set of standards currently available should facilitate further development and testing of e-Prescribing solutions. Incomplete consideration of the effects of e-Prescribing on pharmacists and pharmacies. Most evaluations of one-way e-Prescribing systems conducted in the United States focused almost entirely on the e-Prescribing system from the perspective of the 736,833-836,838,839 prescriber, the prescriber’s staff, or both. Several of these reports described a lack of awareness of the e-Prescribing process on the part of pharmacies and pharmacists and a subsequent need to educate pharmacists on the specific e-Prescribing 736,835 process adopted by the prescriber. Pharmacists and pharmacy staff generally 645,833,834 reported that e-Prescribing systems negatively impacted their workflow. While reduced pharmacy to prescriber callback rates are touted as a potential advantage to e-Prescribing, the highest quality 575 evidence available did not support a reduced callback rate. A sample of e-Prescribing prescriptions sent to selected pharmacies in Denmark was prospectively compared with a sample of handwritten prescriptions sent to the same set of pharmacies. The investigators’ adjusted analysis indicated a significantly higher likelihood (relative risk, 1. This finding is especially significant as nearly two- 575,797 thirds of prescriptions are transmitted electronically in Denmark. Pharmacists are an essential part of the medication use process and better integration of e- Prescribing and pharmacy information systems through, at a minimum, one-way complete electronic data interchange should be a focus of further research. Prescribers were also concerned 95 that notification by pharmacies of prescription fill status (filled or not filled) could 839 increase their exposure to malpractice claims. Nearly all of the systems evaluated in the United States described the use of prescription writing software limited to generating e-Prescriptions, but without any other clinical record keeping 736,839 functionality. These systems generated prescriptions and retrieved pharmacy dispensing histories while requiring providers to concurrently maintain paper-based medical records. Evidence from the limited set of one-way e- Prescribing studies was extrapolated to identify possible key facilitators and barriers to completely electronic, two-way e-Prescribing systems. Possible facilitators include monetary or other incentives to providers, a permissive regulatory environment, and the existence of enabling technical standards necessary for e-Prescribing. These studies involved 4,709 providers and approximately 828,441 patients in total (numbers were not specified in all articles). Patients included were primarily adults, with only two studies addressing issues specific to children.