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The growing demand for livestock products is likely to have an undesirable impact on the environment proven viagra gold 800 mg. For example best 800 mg viagra gold, there will be more large-scale generic viagra gold 800 mg free shipping, industrial production, often located close to urban centres, which brings with it a range of environmental and public health risks. Attempts have been made to estimate the environmental impact of industrial livestock production. For instance, it has been estimated that the number of people fed in a year per hectare ranges from 22 for potatoes and 19 for rice to 1 and 2, respectively, for beef and lamb (9). The low energy conversion ratio from feed to meat is another concern, since some of the cereal grain food produced is diverted to livestock production. Likewise, land and water requirements for meat production are likely to become a major concern, as the increasing demand for animal products results in more intensive livestock production systems (10). After the remarkable increase in both marine and inland capture of fish during the 1950s and 1960s, world fisheries production has levelled off since the 1970s. This levelling off of the total catch follows the general trend of most of the world’s fishing areas, which have apparently reached their maximum potential for fisheries production, with the majority of stocks being fully exploited. It is therefore very unlikely that substantial increases in total catch will be obtained in the future. Starting from an insignificant total production, inland and marine aquaculture production has been growing at a remarkable rate, offsetting part of the reduction in the ocean catch of fish. The average apparent per capita consumption increased from about 9 kg per year in the early 1960s to 16 kg in 1997. The per capita availability of fish and fishery products has therefore nearly doubled in 40 years, outpacing population growth. As well as income-related variations, the role of fish in nutrition shows marked continental, regional and national differences. In industrialized countries, where diets generally contain a more diversified range of animal proteins, a rise in per capita provision from 19. In this group of countries, fish contributed an increasing share of total protein intake until 1989 (accounting for between 6. In the early 1960s, per capita fish supply in low-income food-deficit countries was, on average, only 30% of that of the richest countries. This gap has been gradually reduced, such that in 1997, average fish consumption in these countries was 70% of that of the more affluent economies. Despite the relatively low consumption by weight in low-income food-deficit countries, the contribution of fish to total animal protein intake is considerable (nearly 20%). Over the past four decades, however, the share of fish proteins in animal proteins has declined slightly, because of faster growth in the consumption of other animal products. The contribution of inland and marine capture fisheries to per capita food supply has stabilized, around 10 kg per capita in the period 1984--1998. Any recent increases in per capita availability have, therefore, been obtained from aquaculture produc- tion, from both traditional rural aquaculture and intensive commercial aquaculture of high-value species. Fish contributes up to 180 kcal per capita per day, but reaches such high levels only in a few countries where there is a lack of alternative protein foods grown locally or where there is a strong preference for fish (examples are Iceland, Japan and some small island states). Fish proteins are essential in the diet of some densely populated countries where the total protein intake level is low, and are very important in the diets of many other countries. Worldwide, about a billion people rely on fish as their main source of animal proteins. About 20% of the world’s population derives at least one-fifth of its animal protein intake from fish, and some small island states depend almost exclusively on fish. Recommending the increased consumption of fish is another area where the feasibility of dietary recommendations needs to be balanced against concerns for sustainability of marine stocks and the potential depletion of this important marine source of high quality nutritious food. Added to this is the concern that a significant proportion of the world fish catch is transformed into fish meal and used as animal feed in industrial livestock production and thus is not available for human consumption. A low consumption of fruits and vegetables in many regions of the developing world is, however, a persistent phenomenon, confirmed by the findings of food consumption surveys. Nationally representative surveys in India (12), for example, indicate a steady level of consumption of only 120--140 g per capita per day, with about another 100 g per capita coming from roots and tubers, and some 40 g per capita from pulses. This may not be true for urban populations in India, who have rising incomes and greater access to a diverse and varied diet. In contrast, in China, --- a country that is undergoing rapid economic growth and transition --- the amount of fruits and vegetables consumed has increased to 369 g per capita per day by 1992. The relatively favourable situation in 1998 appears to have evolved from a markedly less favourable position in previous years, as evidenced by the great increase in vegetable availability recorded between 1990 and 1998 for most of the regions. In contrast, the availability of fruit generally decreased between 1990 and 1998 in most regions of the world. Increasing urbanization will distance more people from primary food production, and in turn have a negative impact on both the availability of a varied and nutritious diet with enough fruits and vegetables, and the access of the urban poor to such a diet. Nevertheless, it may facilitate the achievement of other goals, as those who can afford it can have better access to a diverse and varied diet. Investment in periurban horticulture may provide an opportunity to increase the availability and consumption of a healthy diet. Global trends in the production and supply of vegetables indicate that the current production and consumption vary widely among regions, as indicated in Table 5. It should be noted that the production of wild and indigenous vegetables is not taken into account in production statistics and might therefore be underestimated in consumption statistics. In 2000, the global annual average per capita vegetable supply was 102 kg, with the highest level in Asia (116 kg), and the lowest levels in South America (48 kg) and Africa (52 kg). These figures also include the large amount of horticultural produce that is consumed on the farm. Table 5 and Figure 3 illustrate the regional and temporal variations in the per capita availability of vegetables per capita over the past few decades. Table 5 Supply of vegetables per capita, by region, 1979 and 2000 (kg per capita per year) Region 1979 2000 World 66. This has raised fears that the world may not be able to grow enough food and other commodities to ensure that future populations are adequately fed. However, the slowdown has occurred not because of shortages of land or water but rather because demand for agricultural products has also slowed. This is mainly because world population growth rates have been declining since the late 1960s, and fairly high levels of food consumption per person are now being reached in many countries, beyond which further rises will be limited. It also true that a high share of the world’s population remains in poverty and hence lacks the necessary income to translate its needs into effective demand. As a result, the growth in world demand for agricultural products is expected to fall from an average 2. Global food shortages are unlikely, but serious problems already exist at national and local levels, and may worsen unless focused efforts are made.

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The affected area is very sore and purchase viagra gold master card, if blistered and extensive viagra gold 800 mg sale, makes the individual feel unwell and even require in-patient management as for a thermal burn order 800 mg viagra gold with visa. Sensitivity is conventionally graded as follows in answer to the question ‘Do you burn or tan in the sun? It is thought to play a role in causing the dermal degeneration known as solar elastosis, which is mainly respon- sible for the appearance of ageing as well as contributing to the cause of skin can- cer. Mary has blond hair, blue eyes and pale skin, whereas Louise has brown hair and eyes and slightly darker skin. Mary has found that she becomes red and sunburnt easily and cannot tan, but Louise can stay in the sun longer without burning. At the age of 45, Mary noticed that she had quite a few wrinkles in the crow’s feet areas and around the mouth, but Louise still looked quite young. The changes are more in evidence in those with outdoor occupations, such as farmers, builders or sailors. However, with the advent of package holidays and cheap air travel, glori- fication of the great outdoors and the obsession with obtaining a suntan, excess sun exposure is commonplace, resulting in unnecessary photodamage. They are common and, although they are not detectable clinically, they may lead on to pre-cancerous solar keratoses or Bowen’s disease, frankly invasive squamous or basal cell carcinoma (see Chapter 13) and life-threatening malignant melanoma (see Chapter 13). The degenerative change is termed solar elastosis as it stains just like elastic tissue. Solar elastosis starts subepidermally, although separated from the epidermis by a thin layer of normal dermis – the grenz zone. With increasing exposure, elastotic tissue extends deeper and deeper into the dermis. Solar elastosis imparts a sallow, yellowish tint to affected skin and the altered mechanical properties of the abnormal tissue are responsible for many of the wrinkles and lines around the mouth and eyes on sun-damaged skin (Fig. Large telangiectatic blood vessels in the degenerate dermis account for the telang- iectasia seen clinically (Fig. Topical retinoids (tretinoin, isotretinoin and tazarotene) used over several months improve the appearance of photodamaged skin by stimulating the syn- thesis of new dermal connective tissue. One is the ‘pigment- darkening method’, in which the time to the production of a transient darkening of the skin is measured. Phytochemical reactions are photosensitivity responses that result from contact with plants or their products on areas exposed to the sun. Giant hogweed and meadow grass contain coumarins, and psoralens are found in some fruits, such as the bergamot. Chronic actinic dermatitis (persistent light reaction; actinic reticuloid syndrome) Patients with this disorder start with severe photoallergic dermatitis and do not respond to routine light avoidance. When photosensitivities are identified to plant extracts or to antimicrobials such as trichlorosalicylanilide, avoidance does not necessarily produce improvement. Severely affected patients need to be nursed in a darkened room to ensure complete pro- tection from irradiation. Some improvement with azathioprine (50–150 mg daily) may be expected, but little else helps. Polymorphic light eruption This is a common disorder, occurring in young and middle-aged women and characterized by itchy papules and papulovesicles on exposed sites – particularly the forearms (Fig. The rash develops shortly after sun exposure throughout the spring and summer months. Weak topical corticosteroids may help, but some severely affected patients 32 Chronic photodamage (photoageing) Figure 3. Hutchinson’s summer prurigo This occurs in girls and young women and looks somewhat like atopic dermatitis. Controls are run with irradiation alone and with the suspected substances without irradiation. In one group of tests, the wavelength dependency (action spectrum) of the dis- order is determined by shining monochromatic radiation (single wavelength) on the skin using a monochromator. Sweat rash The term is quite non-specific and applied by the lay public to any disorder asso- ciated with sweating and the hot weather. Dermatoses as diverse as intertrigo and folliculitis are sometimes known as ‘sweat rashes’. The term miliaria crys- tallina is applied to the tiny, thin walled vesicles that arise from blockage at the pore near the surface. In miliaria rubra, red, inflamed papules occur due to block- age lower in the duct. In miliaria profunda, the blockage is deep down and large inflammatory swellings develop. The most effective treatment is to cool the patient with air conditioning and fans. Psoriasis and acne are mostly improved by sun exposure, but some patients are, for some reason, made worse. The lesions occur on the fingers, toes and occasionally elsewhere as raised, dusky red or mauve swellings and are painful and/or itchy. They particu- larly affect plump young women, for some reason, as well as the elderly. Raynaud’s phenomenon This common, curious response of the digital arteries to the cold is observed in Table 3. Systemic sclerosis After a variable period, they go pink and then develop a bluish discoloration – Systemic lupus the whole sequence lasting approximately 30 minutes. If severe, it can lead to atrophic changes Use of vibratory tools with loss of tissue and tapering of the fingers. Cervical rib If no underlying cause can be found or the cause cannot be removed, symptom- Atherosclerosis atic treatment directed towards keeping the hands warm and producing vasodi- Polycythaemia rubra vera latation in them is needed. Electrically heated gloves, oral inositol nicotinate, In the majority of cases, no nifedipine (5–10 mg t. Infra red in the solar spectrum may play a role in chronic photodamage, but it is difficult to determine what that role is. Chronic heat damage to the skin occurs on the shins and elsewhere at sites habitually warmed by focal sources of heat – a condition known as erythema ab igne. This elastotic degeneration is digital arteries causing Raynaud’s phenomenon, in responsible for many of the appearances of ageing, which the fingers go white, pink and blue in including wrinkling and telangiectasia. The condition may occur for no obvious ● Solar damage can be prevented by avoiding exposure reason or be the result of an underlying disorder at times of maximum irradiation and by the use of such as the carpal tunnel syndrome, cervical rib or sunscreens. The skin surface and its adnexal structures harbour a stable microflora, which lives in symbiosis with skin and may indeed be beneficial. Gram-positive cocci (Staphylococcus epidermidis), Gram-positive lipophilic microaerophilic rods (Propionibacterium acnes) and a Gram-positive yeast-like organism (Pityrosporum ovale or Malassezia furfur) live in the follicular lumina without normally causing much in the way of harm. Infection of the skin only occurs when the skin encounters a pathogen that its defences can- not eliminate or control. Fungal disease of the skin/the superficial mycoses/infections with ringworm fungi (dermatophyte infections) Dermatophyte infections are restricted to the stratum corneum, the hair and the nails (i. This microaerophilic, lipophilic denizen of the normal follicle only occasionally becomes pathogenic when its growth is encouraged by heightened rates of sebum secretion or there is depressed immunity. Diagnosis is made by identification microscopically of grape-like clusters of spores and a mesh- work of pseudomycelium in skin scrapings made more transparent by soaking the scales for 20 minutes in 20 per cent potassium hydroxide.

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Both groups were treated equally regarding anesthesia order generic viagra gold on-line, hair clipping and penetration of the skin with the same type of needle cheap viagra gold master card. The gold implantation group had small pieces of 24 carat gold inserted through needles at five different acupuncture points and the placebo group had the skin penetrated at five non-acupuncture points so as to avoid any possible effect of stimulating the acupuncture points purchase line viagra gold. After 14 days, three months and six months, the owners assessed the overall effect of the treatments by answering a questionnaire, and the same veterinarian examined and evaluated each dog. There were significantly greater improvements in mobility and greater reductions in the signs of pain in the dogs treated with gold implantation than in the placebo group. A study of the application of acupuncture analgesia in cranio-maxillofacial surgical procedures was reported in Belarus (Pohodenko 2005). In 20 of these, surgery was carried out under general anesthesia in combination with acupuncture analgesia. In 100 patients, acupuncture analgesia was applied in addition to traditional postoperative analgesia. In case of troublesome postoperative pain, it was necessary to carry out additional sessions of acupuncture stimulation. When acupuncture analgesia was used, the pulse rate and blood pressure during surgery generally remained stable, and the serum cortisol was only showed minor elevation. The author suggested that acupuncture analgesia can be a useful adjunct to conventional anesthesia in maxillofacial surgery. A study was reported in which a simple acupuncture procedure was used in patients under standard intravenous anesthesia in the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, China (Shyr et al. About 10 out of the 32 control patients experienced nausea or vomiting, when compared with only 2 out of 32 patients receiving acupoint injection, and the reduction in nausea was significant. Hence, it is recommended that the use of acupuncture as an antiemetic should be explored further. Another similar study was carried out in Northern Ireland based on the abovementioned test (Dundee and Ghaly 1991). The incidence of postoperative illness was monitored for 6 h in 74 women premedicated with nalbuphine, 10 mg, who were undergoing short gynecologic operations of similar duration under methohexital nitrous oxide-oxygen anesthesia. In a random order, the site of the acupuncture was previously infiltrated with normal saline solution in half of the patients, and 1% lidocaine in the remaining patients. Postoperative emetic sequel occurred significantly more often in those who received lidocaine, when compared with the group that received saline solution. Lee and Done (2004) searched database about stimulation of the wrist acupuncture point P6 for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Regularly rated pain intensity (five-point verbal rating scale), consumption of 500-mg tablets of acetaminophen, and additional rescue medication with 500 mg of mefenamic acid, were assessed. The healthy volunteers were anesthetized with desflurane, and noxious electrical stimuli were administered via 25-gauge needles on both the thighs (70 mA at 100 Hz for 10 s). Hence, the combination of acupuncture with a reduced dose of anesthetics (dolantin) may be advisable. It is well known that epidural morphine is commonly used in the clinic to relieve postoperative pain; however, it is observed to induce immunosuppression, inhibition of the intestinal peristalsis, and respiratory inhibitions. Note that the morphine induced inhibition of the intestinal peristalsis was significantly reduced. These drugs were classified into three main categories according to their effect on acupuncture analgesia: drugs with potentiating effect; drugs with reducing effect; and drugs without significant influence. This classification may provide the clinical principles for the medical doctors to select the proper adjuvant according to different conditions. Subsequently, the mechanism of some drugs affecting acupuncture analgesia was investigated using multidisciplinary techniques by our experiment research group (Zhu et al. This suggests that further activation of the opioid receptors might underlie the mechanisms of the drugs’ potentiating effect on acupuncture analgesia (Fig. In the autoradiographic images, the red color indicates higher density of the opioid receptors, while the blue indicates lower density. In situ hybridization was performed on the brain slices from the rats sacrificed 10 h after Dro (1. On the other hand, the analgesic effects could also be found in some biologically active substances, such as melatonin (Yu et al. In the Beijing Tiantan Hospital and Shanghai Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, the acupoint stimulation was used to combine the modern awake anesthesia in craniotomy. Furthermore, in the Renji Hospital affiliated to the Shanghai Second Medical University (now affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University), the cardiac surgery was performed with acupuncture-drug balanced anesthesia. In 2007, the research project of acupuncture anesthesia won funds from the National Key Basic Research Program in China. We are confident that the research of acupuncture-drug balanced anesthesia which was initiated in China will continue to make great progresses and improve its application at the bedside, bringing more and more benefits to the patients. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the grants from the National Key Basic Research Program (No. Acupunct Electrother Res 27: 1 14 Chen Y, Chen X, Chen P, Li L, Jian L, Chen Y (1990) Maintenance of best needle sensation and small dose of fentanyl and droperidol applied in herniotomy. Chin Med J 106: 220 224 Department of Physiology, Shanghai First Medical College, Shanghai First Tuberculosis Hospital and Shanghai Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (1973) Effect of acupuncture of points on the pain threshold of normal human subjects. In: Group of Acupuncture Anesthesia (ed) Selection of Research on Acupuncture Anesthesia, Shanghai People’ Press, Shanghai. Clin Pharmacol Ther 50: 78 80 Gioia L, Cabrini L, Gemma M, Fiori R, Fasce F, Bolognesi G, Spinelli A, Beretta L (2006) Sedative effect of acupuncture during cataract surgery: Prospective randomized double blind study. Pain 31: 99 121 Huang H (1995) Combined acupuncture and medicinal anesthesia for neolarynx reconstruction. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu (Acupuncture Research) 26: 187 188 (in Chinese with English abstract) Yan H, Jiang C, Liang W (1998) Clinical application of combined acupuncture drug anesthesia in cerebral functional area operation. Europ J Pharmacol 403: 49 53 Zhang R (1989) Developmental history of acupuncture anesthesia in China. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu (Acupuncture Research) 25: 93 95 (in Chinese with English abstract) Zhou H, Dong W, Liu S, Zhang M (2001) Clinical study on the application of acupuncture anesthesia to pulmonary operation under video thoracoscope. Chin J Perinat Med 6(1): 6 9 (in Chinese with English abstract) 161 7 Acupuncture Analgesia in Clinical Practice Qiliang Maoying and Wenli Mi Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P. China Summary As one of the most important complementary and alternative modalities, acupuncture has been used worldwide in pain relief at bedside. Substantial and accumulating clinical evidences show that acupuncture produces analgesic effects in various acute/chronic pain conditions. In this chapter, we will summarize the clinical research of acupuncture-induced analgesic effects on various pain disorders, especially headaches, chronic low back pain, knee osteoarthritis, chronic neck pain, neuropathic pain, motor system injuries, fibromyalgia, cancer pain, dental pain, and phantom limb pain. Furthermore, the clinical designs and acupuncture approaches for pain relief will also be discussed in terms of appropriate use of acupuncture. Finally, we will briefly comment on several problematic issues in acupuncture studies, and present a prospective view in terms of future research to improve the clinical application of acupuncture to make it more beneficial to patients. It is also attributed to the most common cause of mental and physical suffering, as well as disability that seriously impairs the quality of life, especially chronic pathological pain, including inflammatory pain, neuropathic pain, cancer pain, etc. Using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids, great progress has been made in pain relief in the past years.

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These areas of the hair shaft devoid of the cuticle create sites for deposition of conditioner protein generic viagra gold 800mg with visa, which is hydrolyzed to a molecular weight 1000 to 10 buy cheap viagra gold 800 mg online,000 Daltons (30) discount viagra gold generic. Voids may also be present in the cuticle due to hair dyeing, which disrupts the cuticle through exposure to hydrogen peroxide and/or ammonia, or hair permanent waving, which disrupts the cuticle due to ammonium thio- glycolate exposure. The small molecular weight proteins can penetrate the hair shaft through these voids and increase hair fracture strength by 10%. Nonmedicated Grooming Products and Beauty Treatments 63 the proteins diffuse out with subsequent shampooing. Additional protein-containing conditioner use will replace the proteins, temporarily improving hair strength. The source of the protein is not as important as the size of the protein particle and its ability to enter and remain inside the hair shaft (31,32). The ability of protein-containing conditioners to strengthen the hair shaft depends on contact time. The longer the protein conditioner is left in contact with the hair shaft, the more protein that will diffuse into the shaft. Thus, proteins are used in short-contact instant condition- ers applied following shampooing and rinsed for minimal protein penetration and in leave-on conditioners applied prior to shampooing and left on the hair for 30 minutes prior to removal for greater protein penetration. The amount of protein that penetrates the hair shaft determines the final cosmetic appearance of the conditioned hair and its breaking strength characteristics. Silicones have virtually revolution- ized hair conditioning, both from the standpoint of conditioning shampoos and instant hair conditioners (33). Topical silicone is an amazingly safe material from a dermatologic perspec- tive, since it is hypoallergenic, noncomedogenic, and nonacnegenic. It derives its chemical properties from the alternating silica and oxygen bonds, known as siloxane bonds, which are exceedingly strong (34). The silicone used in topical preparations is an odorless, col- orless, nontoxic liquid. For this reason it is used in hair conditioners, since it will place a thin film over the hair shaft that resists water rinsing. The most common form of silicone used in hair conditioners is dimethicone, which improves hair manageability by reducing static electricity, minimizes tangles by decreasing friction, and imparts shine by smoothing roughened cuticular scale (35–37). Since silicone can form a thin, nongreasy film on the hair shaft, it does not create the limp appearance characteristic of other hair-conditioning ingredients. Topical silicone is very safe as there have been no reports of problems arising from its use in shampoos, conditioners, moisturizers, or facial cosmetics. Conditioner Diversity Hair conditioners are available in several types, depending on their intended function and when in the grooming process they are applied (38–40). The major types of hair conditioners are summarized in Table 4, consisting of instant conditioners, deep conditioners, leave-in con- ditioners, and hair rinses. Instant Conditioners Instant conditioners are aptly named, since they are applied directly from the bottle to the hair once it has been shampooed and rinsed. They are left in contact with the hair briefly for 1–5 minutes and then thoroughly rinsed. Due to their short contact time, they provide minimal conditioning and must be used after each shampooing to achieve the desired effect. The need for instant hair conditioners arose after hair shampoo detergents were developed with excel- lent sebum-removing capabilities. In addition, many of the currently popular hairstyles require frequent shampooing to remove styling gels, mousses, waxes, and sprays. Thus, the hair must be shampooed daily with a strong detergent leaving the hair unmanageable. Instant conditioners are the most popular type of hair conditioner for both home and salon use, even though they have limited ability to repair damaged hair. Deep Conditioners Deep conditioners are generally creams or oils, in contrast to instant conditioners that are gen- erally lotions, designed to remain on the hair for 20–30 minutes prior to shampoo removal. They usually contain higher concentrations of quaternary and protein-containing conditioning agents (41). Deep conditioners for African-American individuals with kinky hair may consist of warm oil applied to the hair shaft. The goal of a deep conditioner is to allow the conditioning agent to more thoroughly coat and penetrate the hair shaft to improve its cosmetic appearance (42). Sometimes heat is used to enhance penetration in the form of a hair dryer or warm towel to cause hair shaft swelling, which allows increased conditioner penetration. Leave-in Conditioners Leave-in conditioners are applied following towel drying of the hair and are designed to remain on the hair shaft to aid in styling. A large category of leave-in conditioners, known as blow-drying lotions, are designed to coat the hair shaft and protect the hair protein from heat damage during the drying process. The most popular leave-in hair conditioners are designed for persons with curly or kinky hair. For exam- ple, oil sheen sprays and oily pomades help retain water within chemically straightened hair shafts and decrease the combing friction between hair shafts thereby preventing hair breakage. For persons with fine, straight hair, the oily leave-in conditioner would render the hair limp and hard to style, but for persons with coarse kinky hair, the oils improve manageability and impart shine. These products typically contain petrolatum, mineral oil, vegetable oils, and sili- cone and function as a true hair moisturizer. Leave-in conditioners can create a film over the hair shaft that may be difficult to remove with shampooing. For individuals with tightly kinked hair, this is advantageous because it allows more frequent shampooing with less hair damage. Certainly for persons with fine, straight hair, this conditioner build-up would create the appearance of greasy, unclean hair. It is important to remember that the main purpose of a shampoo is to clean the scalp, not the hair. The amount and type of leave-in conditioner applied depends on degree of curl present in the hair shaft, tightly curled kinky hair requires more conditioning than straight hair. Hair Rinses Hair rinses are a special category of hair conditioners designed as thin liquids applied like an instant hair conditioner after shampooing and rinsed. They utilize cationic quaternary ammo- nium compounds, such as stearalkonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. These products are mainly used to facilitate hair detangling by reducing friction and do little else to condition the hair shaft. They are intended for persons with oily hair who need little conditioning due to abundant sebum production. Modern chemical processes can change the color of the hair, either lighter or darker than the natural color, and the configuration of the hair, making straight hair curly or kinky hair straight. These processes inherently damage the hair shaft, which may precipitate hair breakage. Nonmedicated Grooming Products and Beauty Treatments 65 Several different hair dye cosmetics have been developed for use on all different hair types: gradual, temporary, semipermanent, and permanent (Table 5). Approximately 65% of hair-dye purchases are for permanent hair colorings, 20% for semipermanent colorings, and 15% for the remaining types.