Infections that produce pneumonia often do so by causing the alveoli to fill with inflammatory cells and fluid buy avanafil 200 mg low price erectile dysfunction symptoms. Everyday cheap 100mg avanafil with amex natural erectile dysfunction pills reviews, bacteria are inhaled into the lower airways without causing bronchitis or pneumonia order on line avanafil erectile dysfunction treatment guidelines. When pulmonary infections occur, it is the result of a virulent organism, a large dose or an impaired immune system. All of us aspirate small amounts of upper airway secretions every night, but as a percent of the population very few individuals actually develop pneumonia. Atypical pneumonias are most commonly due to viruses, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumoniae. Pneumonia also commonly occurs in patients who have coexisting illnesses which alter the clinical presentation. Severity assessment scores have been developed to improve early identification and hopefully decrease mortality rates in these patients. The organism responsible for causing a patient s pneumonia can be predicted by the status of the patient s underlying immune system and other coexisting diseases, as well as their place of residence - the community or a hospital/chronic care facility. The most common bacterial organism responsible for community- acquired infection in all types of patients is Streptococcus or Pneumococcal pneumoniae. Common Organisms Responsible for Community-Acquired Pneumonias Streptococcus or Pneumococcal pneumonia is a Gram-positive, lancet-shaped diplococcus and is the most common cause of community acquired pneumonia in all populations, regardless of age or coexisting disease. Eight-five percent of all pneumococcal pneumonias are caused by any one of 23 serotypes. The pneumococcal vaccine (Pneumovax) provides protection against all 23 serotypes. Infection is the most common in the winter and early spring, and therefore it is not surprising that many patients report have a preceding viral illness. Spread is from person-to-person and pneumonia develops when colonizing organisms are aspirated at a high enough dose to cause infection. Patients with an intact immune response present with the typical pneumonia syndrome of abrupt onset of a febrile illness, appearing ill or toxic with a cough productive of rusty colored sputum and complaining of pleuritic stabbing chest pain. Physical examination of the chest may show evidence for consolidation with absent breath sounds. Bacteremia (organisms in the blood) can occur in 15 to 25% of all patients and mortality rates are substantially higher in such cases. While penicillin or erythromycin can be prescribed, current treatment for outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia usually includes macrolides such as azithromycin (Zithromax) and clarithromycin (Biaxin), based on an easier to comply with dosing interval and less gastrointestinal side effects. Also used are oral beta-lactams such as cefuroxime, amoxicillin, or amoxicillin- clavulanate. Fluoroquinolones with activity against Streptococcus pneumonia (such as Levaquin and Avelox) can be substituted when needed though some recommend against the use of this class of antibiotics as first-line therapy due to risk of developing resistance. Ten percent of strains in the United States are intermediately resistant to penicillin but can still be treated with high dose penicillin, while one percent are highly resistant and require treatment with Vancomycin. As is often the case in any type of pneumonia, radiographic improvement lags behind the clinical response and may take months to clear and become normal. Legionella pneumonia is a Gram-negative bacillus first characterized after it led to a pneumonia epidemic in Philadelphia in 1976. Retrospective analysis of stored specimens has shown that Legionella pneumonia has caused human disease since at least 1965. At least 12 different serogroups have been described, with serogroup 1 causing most cases. When a water system becomes infected in an institution, endemic outbreaks may occur, as has been the case in some hospitals. Person-to-person spread has not been documented, nor has infection via aspiration from a colonized oropharynx, although it may be possible that the infection can develop after subclinical aspiration of contaminated water. Patients with Legionella pneumonia commonly present with high fever, chills, headache, body aches and elevated white blood cell counts. The patient may have a dry or productive cough, pleuritic stabbing chest pain, and shortness of breath. The chest radiograph is not specific and may show bronchopneumonia, unilateral or bilateral disease, lobar consolidation, or rounded densities with cavitation. Symptoms are rapidly progressive, and the patient may appear to be quite ill or toxic. Some patients may develop renal failure and this combination of respiratory failure and renal failure has a high mortality rate. Haemophilus influenza is a Gram-negative coccobacillary rod that occurs in either a typable, encapsulated form or a nontypable, unencapsulated form. Patients present with a sudden onset of fever, sore throat, cough and pleuritic stabbing chest pain. Adult mortality rates are high and mostly reflect the impact of the coexisting illness. Many isolates are also resistant to ampicillin and erythromycin, therefore these antibiotics should not be used. Mycoplasma pneumoniae commonly causes minor upper respiratory tract illnesses or bronchitis. Although pneumonia occurs in 10% or less of all Mycoplasma infections, this organism is still a common cause of pneumonia. In the general population, it may account for 20% of all pneumonia cases, and up to 50% in certain populations, such as college students. All age groups are affected, but disease is more common in those under 20 years of age. The incubation period is anywhere from two to three weeks and when pneumonia occurs, the usual presentation is in the form of an atypical pneumonia. Up to half will have upper respiratory tract symptoms including sore throat and earache. Chest radiographs show interstitial infiltrates, which are usually unilateral and in the lower lobe, but can be bilateral and multilobar. The patient usually does not appear as ill as suggested by the radiographic picture. Currently, effective antibiotics include macrolides, doxycyline, and the fluoroquinolones. Chlamydia pneumonia is a relatively common cause of pneumonia in teenagers and adults. Currently, effective treatment is doxycycline, macrolides and the fluoroquinolones. Staphylococcus aureus can cause community acquired pneumonia in normal patients recovering from influenza, in patients addicted to intravenous drug use, and in the elderly. Patients present with sudden onset of fever, shortness of breath, and cough productive of purulent sputum. An infected pleural effusion (fluid in the space between the lung and chest wall), called an empyema may also occur.
These agents are used as preservatives to reduce microbial spoilage of foods discount avanafil 50 mg mastercard erectile dysfunction drugs generic, as inhibitors of enzymatic and nonenzymatic discoloration of foods order avanafil on line amex erectile dysfunction drugs free sample, and as antioxidants that are often found in bronchodilator solutions order avanafil 50mg amex erectile dysfunction doctor in houston. The mechanism responsible for sulfite-induced asthmatic reactions may be the result of the generation of sulfur dioxide, which is then inhaled. However, sulfite-sensitive asthmatic patients are not more sensitive to inhaled sulfur dioxide than are other asthmatic patients (161). The diagnosis of sulfite sensitivity may be established on the basis of sulfite challenge. Bronchospasm in these patients may be treated with metered-dose inhalers or nebulized bronchodilator solutions containing negligible amounts of metabisulfites. Although epinephrine does contain sulfites, its use in an emergency situation even among sulfite-sensitive asthmatic patients should not be discouraged (161). Pulmonary Infiltrates with Eosinophilia An immunologic mechanism is probably operative in two forms of drug-induced acute lung injury, namely hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary infiltrates associated with peripheral eosinophilia. A lung biopsy demonstrates interstitial and alveolar inflammation consisting of eosinophils and mononuclear cells. The outcome is usually excellent, with rapid clinical improvement upon drug cessation and corticosteroid therapy. Nitrofurantoin may also induce an acute syndrome, in which peripheral eosinophilia is present in about one third of patients. However, this reaction differs from the drug-induced pulmonary infiltrates with peripheral eosinophilia syndrome just described because tissue eosinophilia is not present, and the clinical picture frequently includes the presence of a pleural effusion ( 164). Typically, the onset of the acute pulmonary reaction begins a few hours to 7 to 10 days after commencement of treatment. A chest radiograph may show diffuse or unilateral involvement, with an alveolar or interstitial process that tends to involve lung bases. A small pleural effusion, usually unilateral, is seen in about one third of patients. Knowledge of this reaction can prevent unnecessary hospitalization for suspected pneumonia. Upon withdrawal of the drug, resolution of the chest radiograph findings occurs within 24 to 48 hours. Although the acute nitrofurantoin-induced pulmonary reaction is rarely fatal, a chronic reaction that is uncommon has a higher mortality rate of 8%. The chronic reaction mimics idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis clinically, radiologically, and histologically. Of the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, methotrexate is the most common cause of a noncytotoxic pulmonary reaction in which peripheral blood, but not tissue, eosinophilia may be present (165). Fever, malaise, headache, and chills may overshadow the presence of a nonproductive cough and dyspnea. The chest radiograph demonstrates a diffuse interstitial process, and 10% to 15% of patients develop hilar adenopathy or pleural effusions. Recovery is usually prompt upon withdrawal of methotrexate, but it can occasionally be fatal. Although an immunologic mechanism has been suggested, some patients who have recovered may be able to resume methotrexate without adverse sequelae. Bleomycin and procarbazine, chemotherapeutic agents usually associated with cytotoxic pulmonary reactions, have occasionally produced a reaction similar to that of methotrexate. Pneumonitis and Fibrosis Slowly progressive pneumonitis or fibrosis is usually associated with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drugs, such as bleomycin. However, some drugs, such as amiodarone, may produce a clinical picture similar to hypersensitivity pneumonitis without the presence of eosinophilia. In many cases, this category of drug-induced lung disease is often dose dependent. Amiodarone, an important therapeutic agent in the treatment of many life-threatening arrhythmias, has produced an adverse pulmonary reaction in about 6% of patients, with 5% to 10% of these reactions being fatal ( 166). Symptoms rarely develop in a patient receiving less than 400 mg/day for less than 2 months. The clinical presentation is usually subacute with initial symptoms of nonproductive cough, dyspnea, and occasionally low-grade fever. Pulmonary function studies demonstrate a restrictive pattern with a diffusion defect. Histologic findings include the intraalveolar accumulation of foamy macrophages, alveolar septal thickening, and occasional diffuse alveolar damage (167). It is unclear whether these changes cause interstitial pneumonitis, as these findings are seen in most patients receiving this drug without any adverse pulmonary reactions. Although an immunologic mechanism has been suggested, the role of hypersensitivity in amiodarone-induced pneumonitis remains speculative ( 168). Most patients recover completely after cessation of therapy, although the addition of corticosteroids may be required. Further, when the drug is absolutely required to control a potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmia, patients may be able to continue treatment at the lowest dose possible when corticosteroids are given concomitantly (169). Gold-induced pneumonitis is subacute in onset, occurring after a mean duration of therapy of 15 weeks and a mean cumulative dose of 582 mg ( 170). Exertional dyspnea is the predominant symptom, although a nonproductive cough and fever may be present. Radiographic findings include interstitial or alveolar infiltrates, whereas pulmonary function testing reveals findings compatible with a restrictive lung disorder. The condition is usually reversible after discontinuation of the gold injections, but corticosteroids may be required to reverse the process. Although this pulmonary reaction is rare, it must not be confused with rheumatoid lung disease. Drug-induced chronic fibrotic reactions are probably nonimmunologic in nature, but their exact mechanism is unknown. It is essential to recognize this complication because such reactions may be fatal and could mimic other diseases, such as opportunistic infections. The chest radiograph reveals an interstitial or intraalveolar pattern, especially at the lung bases. A decline in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity may even precede chest radiograph changes. Mononuclear cell infiltration of the interstitium may be seen early, followed by interstitial and alveolar fibrosis, which may progress to honeycombing. Even those who respond to treatment may be left with clinically significant pulmonary function abnormalities. Although an immunologic mechanism has been suspected in some cases ( 172), it is now generally believed that these drugs induce the formation of toxic oxygen radicals that produce lung injury. Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Another acute pulmonary reaction without eosinophilia is drug-induced noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. Salicylate-induced noncardiogenic pulmonary edema may occur when the blood salicylate level is over 40 mg/dL ( 176). Hematologic Manifestations Many instances of drug-induced thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia have been unequivocally shown by in vitro methods to be mediated by immunologic mechanisms.
Most experts agree that in certain clinical circumstances purchase avanafil line erectile dysfunction groups in mi, a biopsy procedure is warranted avanafil 100 mg fast delivery erectile dysfunction young living. For example order avanafil 100 mg amex constipation causes erectile dysfunction, in a patient who is at high surgical risk, it may be useful in establishing a diagnosis and in guiding decision making. If the biopsy reveals malignancy, it may convince a patient who is wary of surgery to undergo thoracotomy or thoracoscopic resection of a potentially-curable lesion. Another indication for biopsy may be anxiety to establish a specific diagnosis in a patient in whom the nodule seems to be benign. Some chest physicians argue that all indeterminate nodules should be resected if the results of history, physical examination, and laboratory and radiographic staging methods are negative for metastases. In such cases, a biopsy procedure sometimes provides a specific diagnosis of a benign lesion and obviates surgery. Bronchoscopy Traditionally, bronchoscopy has been regarded as a procedure of limited usefulness in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules. Studies have shown variable success rates, with an overall diagnostic yield of 36 - 68% for malignant nodules greater than two centimeters in size. For example, for nodules larger than two centimeters in diameter, a sensitivity as high as 68% (average 55%) can be obtained. Location also matters: nodules located in the inner or middle one-third of the lung fields have the best diagnostic yield; nodules in the outer one-third have a much lower diagnostic yield and as such are probably best approached with percutaneous needle aspiration if biopsy is needed. After an extensive evidence-based review of the various studies, it was concluded that bronchoscopy can play a role in the evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule under rare circumstances but that most of the time bronchoscopy will not be the best choice. Similarly, if there is a suspicion for unusual infections, such as tuberculosis or fungal infections, then bronchoscopy may be warranted. It involves placing a very thin needle through the chest wall into the lesion to get an aspirate. It is most useful when nodules are in the outer third of the lung and in lesions under two centimeters in diameter. It can establish the diagnosis of malignancy in up to 95% of cases and can establish specific benign diagnosis (granuloma, hamartoma, and infarct) in up to 68% of patients. The use of larger-bore biopsy needles such as a 19 gauge, which provides a core specimen in addition to cytology improves the yield for both malignant and benign lesions. The major limitation of percutaneous needle aspiration is its high rate of pneumothorax (10- 35% overall); pneumothorax is more likely when lung tissue lies in the path of the needle. Because of the high rate of pneumothorax and its possible complications, the following patients should not undergo percutaneous needle aspiration: those with limited pulmonary reserve (e. Other general contraindications are: bleeding problems, inability to hold breath, and severe pulmonary hypertension. Thoracotomy and Thoracoscopy Lobectomy (resecting a lobe of the lung) using either open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with lymph node resection and staging remain the standard of care for stage I bronchogenic carcinoma, the most common malignancy among solitary pulmonary nodules. Nodules greater than three centimeters in diameter have a greater than 90% chance of being malignant, and in the face of a negative metastatic workup and adequate pulmonary reserve, indeterminate nodules of this size should be resected. The decision will depend on the patient and on the physician, who must educate the patient on the alternatives and possible consequences. This approach still requires general anesthesia but does not require a full thoracotomy incision or spreading of the ribs. In a series by Mack and colleagues, 242 nodules were resected with no mortality and minimal morbidity. Video-assisted thoracic surgery can spare some patients with benign nodules the risks of open thoracotomy and can be useful for wedging out nodules in patients who have limited pulmonary reserve who cannot otherwise tolerate a lobectomy. Wedge excisions or segmental resections for smaller cancers have been evaluated, but the role of these limited pulmonary resections in the management of lung cancer remains controversial. Because of the higher death rate and locoregional recurrence rate associated with limited resection, lobectomy has been recommended as the surgical procedure of choice for patients with malignant solitary pulmonary nodules who have adequate reserve to tolerate the procedure. At the present time, it is reasonable to recommend lobectomy for all patients with malignant solitary pulmonary nodules who have sufficient pulmonary reserve to tolerate the procedure, with consideration of segmentectomy for those patients with inadequate pulmonary function to tolerate a lobectomy. Since no consensus can be reached on the basis of available data, the best that can be done is to offer recommendations. The pathway to be taken and final decision will rest on the individual physician and patient. The following recommendations represent one possible approach to this complex clinical problem: 1. On discovering a solitary pulmonary nodule, the clinician should determine whether it is a true solitary nodule, spherical, and located within the lung fields. A thorough history and physical may provide clues about the nodule s possible cause. If it is established that the nodule is truly solitary, and a benign pattern of calcification is present, the nodule is considered benign and no further workup is necessary. If prior chest radiographs are available, and the nodule has remained unchanged for two years or longer, no further workup is necessary. If the nodule has grown and the doubling time is more than 20 days but less than 18 months, it is considered malignant and should be resected. If the doubling time is more than 18 months, consideration of a slow growing bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma or a carcinoid is warranted and, depending on the patient s preferences and surgical risk, a biopsy procedure may be useful to provide further reassurance to the patient. If old chest images are available but the nodule was not present on prior radiographs, an upper-limit doubling time is calculated. If the doubling time is again less than 18 months, it is considered to be malignant and resected. The follow-up would be as described above, with surgery for those with evidence of progression. The third category, which many patients fall into, consists of those patients who are surgical candidates with nodules with a moderate probability (10-60%) of cancer. If a specific benign diagnostic result (example: core biopsy demonstrates hamartoma or bronchoscopy demonstrates tuberculosis) is obtained then this is usually sufficient to guide management. Fire Fighters and Lung Nodules The two main factors that should be considered when evaluating solitary pulmonary nodules in fire fighters are whether there is an increased risk of cancer associated with firefighting and whether there is an increased risk of developing benign nodules due to occupational exposure with subsequent inflammation and scarring. With respect to lung cancer, the evidence from large epidemiologic studies is conflicting. The standards of evidence for occupational injury are different than those used for scientific consideration, and in taking care of patients, clinical decisions should be based on balancing science with individual exposure histories. This is further complicated by the fact that firefighting and the nature of fires have changed over the decades, making comparisons between studies over time difficult. In studies relevant to the present day, the risk is only elevated in certain groups, mainly those with the highest and longest exposure histories. The introduction of synthetic polymers and building materials in the 1950s poses a theoretical basis for increased risk, but epidemiologic studies have not consistently demonstrated an association. This is further confounded by improvements in respiratory protective devices and the frequency of their utilization.
W. Deckard. Florida Atlantic University.