P. Folleck. University of Maryland at College Park.
Hence purchase antabuse 500mg mastercard medicine 2 times a day, some researchers speculate whether acupuncture accompanying embryo transfer could increase the clinical pregnancy rate cheap antabuse online visa medications for high blood pressure. In general cheap antabuse 500 mg with amex symptoms vitamin d deficiency, the above clinical data demonstrate that acupuncture could be an effective remedy for female infertility. However, the scientific mechanism of the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on infertility treatment needs to be elucidated, for which, we have presented a series of our study results along with those of the related published researches. However, many interesting and important questions, such as “why”, “how to”, and “which”, about the mechanism of acupuncture effect still needs to be addressed. Though these results are significant, they are inadequate to explain the mechanism of infertility treatment using acupuncture. In 1977, Mayer first reported that acupuncture analgesia may be involved in the production of brain endorphin and may be antagonized by the narcotic antagonist, naloxone. Similarly, subsequent studies showed that most of the effects of acupuncture are mediated by the nervous system, comprising neurotransmitters, neuropeptides including endogenous opioid peptides and neurohormones, as well as cytokinins. Nevertheless, the mechanisms through acupuncture affects the endocrine system are yet to be elucidated. Ovulation resulted in 5 cases (ovulatory group), and 3 of the 5 infertile cases became pregnant in the stimulating cycle. However, 5 cases failed to ovulate after acupuncture treatment (anovulatory group). The ovarian follicular size increased dramatically in the ovulatory group, but stopped growing at 14 16 mm diameter in 3 out of the 5 cases without ovulation, after acupuncture treatment. Yang and Yu (2001) examined 14 ovariectomized women with low blood E2 level and perimenopausal syndrome. Consequently, their blood E2 level elevated significantly; however, no change in the E2 level was observed in 8 normal controls after acupuncture treatment. These results suggest that acupuncture might normalize the E2 level when a woman is in the gynecologic status. After acupuncture treatment, the sympathetic nerve activity was evaluated by examining the norepinephrine level, skin temperature, blood pressure, and pain-tolerance threshold, which were all observed to be decreased (Knardahl et al. Based on the previous observation, the anovulatory cases were selected with adequate estrogen levels, and changes in the sympathetic nervous system after acupuncture treatment were observed. According to modern medicine, the blood flow requires the dilation of blood vessels, and the velocity of the blood flow is partly controlled by the innervations of the sympathetic nerve on the vascular wall. In an earlier study, the hand temperature and blood E-endorphin-like immunoreactive substances were measured before and after acupuncture to reflect the sympathetic nerve activity. Thus, the actual effects and mechanism of this enzyme still needs to be elucidated. Subsequently, the aromatase present in those tissues may convert the blood androgen into estrogen, thus, compensating for the deficiency of estrogen induced by ovariectomy. Though it has been reported that the splanchnic tissue is a minor site for extraglandular aromatization of androgens (Longcope et al. With its central sympathoinhibitory effect, acupuncture may contribute to reduce the uterine artery impedance, and thus, increase the blood flow to the uterus. However, the relationship between stress and infertility is that of a vicious cycle. Social stigmatization, decreased self-esteem, unmet reproductive potential of sexual relationship, physical and mental burden of treatment, and the lack of control on treatment outcome are some of the factors that can lead to psychological stress in any couple seeking infertility treatment. The use of acupuncture for reducing anxiety and stress possibly through its sympathoinhibitory property and impact on E-endorphin levels has been reviewed (Chen and Yu 1991; Dong 1993), and the efficacy of acupuncture in treating depression has also been studied (Luo et al. As the pharmacological side 402 14 Acupuncture Treatment for Female Infertility effects of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs on infertility treatment outcome are largely unknown, acupuncture may provide an excellent alternative for stress reduction in women undergoing infertility treatment. In this chapter, we summarized the data of clinical and experimental studies, and discussed the reproduction-neuroendocrine mechanism of acupuncture treatment for woman infertility. Irrespective of its use in the treatment of diseases or in acupuncture analgesia, certain modern scientific mechanism underlies all its applications. Acup Res 20: 55 58 (in Chinese with English abstract) Harada N, Ota H, Yoshimura N, Katsuyama T, Takagi Y (1998) Localized aberrant expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase in primary and metastatic malignant tumors of human liver. Endocrinology 113: 1679 1682 Luo H, Meng F, Jia Y, Zhao X (1998) Clinical research on the therapeutic effect of the electroacupuncture treatment in patients with depression. Hum Reprod 11: 1314 1317 Stener Victorin E, Matts W, Urban W, Thomas Lundeberg (2002) Alternative treatment in reproductive medicine: Much ado about nothing. Acupuncture a method of treatment in reproductive medicine: Lack of evidence of an effect does not equal evidence of the lack of an effect. Hum Reprod 17 (8): 1942 1946 Stener Victorin E, Peter H (2006) Use of acupuncture in female infertility and a summary of recent acupuncture studies related to embryo transfer. Acupuncture in Medicine 24: 157 163 Yang D, Yu J (2001) Treatment of perimenopausal syndrome with ear acupressing in ovariectomized women. Acup Res 29: 135 39 (in Chinese with English abstract) Yoshiji S, Yamamoto T, Okada H (1986) Aromatization of androstenedione and 19 nortestosterone in human placenta, liver and adipose tissues. Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 62:18 25 (in Japanese) Yu J (2002) Induction of ovulation with acupuncture. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 3: 6 406 15 Acupuncture Therapy for Menopausal and Perimenopausal Syndrome Zhanzhuang Tian and Hong Zhao Department of Integrative Medicine and Neruobiology Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, P. China Summary This chapter summarizes the clinical practice and mechanistic exploration of acupuncture therapy for menopausal and perimenopausal syndrome. Accumulating clinic data suggest that acupuncture is an effective and economical therapy for menopausal and perimenopausal syndrome. The mechanistic research has developed the idea that acupuncture signals initiated at the acupoints are transferred to the brain through the nervous pathway, and thus, modulate multiple neurotransmitter systems. On the other hand, acupuncture is observed to activate the endocrine secretion, hormonal, dielectric, and other pathways. There is also evidence showing that the mechanisms of acupuncture are related to the regulation of gene expression and intracellular signal transduction. At present, with many women in the developing and developed countries living at least one-third of their lives after the menopause, it is not surprising to observe the increasing media attention on the health aspects during this crucial period. During perimenopausal period, women commonly report irregular menstrual Acupuncture Therapy of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological View periods, hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness. A group of symptoms, including nervousness, anxiety, irritability, and depression, have also been observed to be associated with menopause. When women reach the menopausal stage, the decision to seek treatment is based on the severity of short-term symptoms, risk of diseases in the later years, and personal attitudes about menopause and medication. Many women go through natural menopause with minimal discomfort during the perimenopausal years. For most of them, the disturbances diminish or disappear over time, or are reduced with lifestyle changes, such as exercise and diet modification. Some perimenopausal women find adequate symptom relief from nonprescription remedies, while others may need prescription therapies during this transition. Sometimes, prescription therapies are needed to protect against osteoporosis and other diseases. Prior to beginning any treatment or a combination of treatments, either intended to alleviate the symptoms or prevent the diseases later in life, a woman needs to be assured that the treatment regimen selected is the best for her. Hormone treatment should always employ the lowest dose for the shortest time needed.
In cases of potential subacute infective endocarditis buy 250mg antabuse visa treatment mastitis, antibiotic treatment should not be started until the final culture and sensitivity data are available discount antabuse 250 mg overnight delivery symptoms insulin resistance. A 4-wk course is appropriate for an uncomplicated case of native valve endocarditis purchase cheap antabuse medications janumet. The shortened regimen is appropriate to the following conditions: (i) a sensitive as S. Even the penicillin sensitive strains may be tolerant to the b-lactam compounds (224). Because of its pharmacokinetics, ceftriaxone has become antibiotic choice because of its twice-a-day dosing regimen. The combined use of a b-lactam or a glycopeptide with gentamicin is required to eradicate resistant streptococci. Such a combination is beneficial in the treatment of tolerant streptococci as well. Table 16 summarizes the recommendations for the treatment of non-enterococcal streptococci. Since the beginning of the antibiotic era, enterococci have posed a significant therapeutic challenge because of their ability to raise multiple resistance mechanisms. These organisms are resistant to all cephalosporins and to the penicillinase-resistant penicillins. When used alone, penicillin and ampicillin are ineffective against serious enterococcal infection. Likewise, aminoglycosides fail to treat these infections when used alone because of their inability to penetrate the bacterial cell wall. The combination of a b-lactam agents (with the exception of the cephalosporins) is able to effectively treat severe enterococcal infections. The cell wall active component plus penetration of the aminoglycoside into the interior of the enterococcus in so reach its target, the ribosome. Synergy does not exist if the enterococcus is resistant to the cell wall active antibiotic (226). Some gentamicin-resistant strains may remain sensitive to streptomycin and vice versa (227). Ampicillin resistance, on the basis of b-lactamase production, has been recognized since the 1980s. This is not usually picked up by routine sensitivity testing and requires the use of a nitrocefin disc for detection. When the enterococcus is sensitive to the b-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin and the aminoglycosides, the classic combination of a cell wall active antibiotic with an aminoglycoside remains the preferred therapeutic approach (228). Vancomycin is substituted for ampicillin in the treatment of those individuals who are allergic to or whose infecting organism is resistant to ampicillin. When resistance to both gentamicin streptomycin is present, continuously infused ampicillin to achieve a serum level of 60 mg/mL has had some success. Experience with the use of this compound against enterococcus is limited but growing. The combination of ampicillin and ceftriaxone does produce synergy against enterococci both in vitro and in vivo. These are ascribed to the production of type A b-lactamases by the organism (235). Possible explanations for the abbreviated antibiotic course in right-sided disease are greater penetration of antibiotics into right-sided vegetations and the decreased concentration of bacteria compared with left-sided disease because of the low oxygen tension of the right ventricle. The main purpose of the other two agents is to prevent the development of rifampin-resistant organisms (238). For those staphylococci resistant to gentamicin, a fluoroquinolone may be an effective substitute (239). The decreasing effectiveness of vancomycin is most likely related to the Infective Endocarditis and Its Mimics in Critical Care 245 increasing prevalence of isolates of S. In addition, it appears that the penetration of vancomycin into target tissues is decreased especially in diabetics (243). Until sensitivities are known, it is advisable to use high does vancomycin to achieve a trough level of greater than 15 mg/mL (245). Over the last decade, several antibiotics have come on the market to meet the increasing challenge of severe infections due to resistant gram-positive agents (Table 18). The potential for increasing vancomycin toxicity at higher dose levels is an added to reason to consider these agents as both empiric and definitive treatment. Some are due to inadequate serum levels as well as possibly due to the bacteriostatic quality of the drug (249). Linezolid administration is associated with significant hematological side effects including anemia and thrombocytopenia. However, the neuropathy occurs at an increasing rate the longer medication is administered. However, the risk–benefit analysis often favors starting linezolid in these patients because of shortcomings of vancomycin. Linezolid’s advantages are that it is extremely well absorbed orally and lends itself to transition therapy. This occurs in association with changes in surface charge, membrane phospholipids, and drug binding of S. This is probably due to the decreased penetration of daptomycin secondary to an increase in the thickness of the cell wall of S. Tigecycline is another of the alternative agents for resistant gram-positive organisms. Sensitivity to the penicillins must be confirmed because standard sensitivity testing may not detect resistance. Plasmid-mediated resistant to third and fourth generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. The newer antifungal agents, capsofungin, and voriconazole are less toxic and appear to be effective alternatives to amphotericin (255,256). This approach would hopefully decrease the size of the vegetation; however, there is an unacceptably high incidence of cerebral hemorrhage. A reasonable approach would be to substitute intravenous heparin for Coumadin during the first two weeks of treatment, the time of the greatest risk for embolization. Even the use of aspirin appears not to be safe and offers no therapeutic benefit (258). Table 25 Approach to the Patient at Risk for Candidal Endocarditis Source: Adapted from Refs. Infective Endocarditis and Its Mimics in Critical Care 249 Table 26 The Most Effective Strategies for the Prevention of Infection of Intravascular Catheters Development of a comprehensive prevention strategy 100% compliance with hand washing Insertion of central catheters under strict sterile conditions Use of chlorhexidine as skin disinfectant Avoidance of inserting femoral catheters No routine replacement of intravenous catheters Removal of catheters as soon as medically feasible Use of antibiotic impregnated cathetersa aUse only under special circumstances (refer to text). Many innovative approaches to prevention have been developed including heparin bound catheters, antibiotic lock technique, and systemic anticoagulation. These are aimed at preventing either fibrin sleeve formation around the catheter or reducing the risk of bacterial infection of these thrombi.
Surgical treatment can achieve very satisfactory results but careful patient selection and surgical skill allied to the aesthetics of scalp hair growth are essential purchase antabuse on line amex symptoms jaw bone cancer. A detailed review of the indications and techniques of hair surgery is beyond the scope of this article cheap antabuse on line medicine on airplanes. However cheapest generic antabuse uk medications you cant donate blood, key considerations include the following (57): There should be an adequate donor area, i. Surgery in young men may result in misplaced hairlines or an unnatural appearance 20–30 years later as balding progresses. Correction of established frontal hair loss is more effective than vertex balding which tends to progress with time. In Caucasians, fair hair gives a more natural appearance than dark hair (which exaggerates the contrast with the color of scalp skin). Less common problems include infection, post-operative bleeding, scarring, and arterio-venous ﬁs- tula formation. Cosmesis Hairstyling is perhaps the simplest approach to modifying the cosmetic impact of male bald- ing. Currently fashionable short hair styles are particularly effective in minimizing the contrast between balding and non-balding regions of the scalp. While these give an instant result, a natural appearance demands skilled professional input. For those who are keen to be treated there are two medical options: minoxidil solution and antiandrogens. In both cases it should be stressed that treatment will, at best, produce only a modest increase in hair density and that it is not possible to fully reverse hair loss. Furthermore, in those who respond, treatment has to be continued to maintain the response. As in men, surgery is the only method capable of restoring the appearance in the presence of severe hair loss. Minoxidil Minoxidil solution 2% is licensed for the treatment of female androgenetic alopecia in most countries. Clinical trials in the early 1990s using hair counts as a primary endpoint reported a mean increase in hair growth of 15–33% in the minoxidil-treated groups compared with 9–14% in the vehicle control groups (58–60). In the investigator and subject assessments minoxidil was superior to the vehicle, but about 40% of subjects appeared not to respond to minoxidil (58,60). A more recent trial comparing 5% and 2% minoxidil solu- tion found increases of 18% and 14% respectively in mean non-vellus hair counts after 48 weeks of treatment, compared to a 7% increase in the placebo group. As in men the increase in hair counts following treatment with minoxidil solution is noticeable within 8 weeks and has peaked after 16 weeks, suggesting that minoxidil acts primarily on the hair cycle. Occasionally it causes scalp irritation that may be severe enough to cause a tempo- rary increase in hair shedding and patients should be warned about this. Hypertrichosis on the face and on more remote sites has been reported, particularly when higher concentrations of minoxidil are used (62). In the authors’ experience minoxidil solution is more reliably effective and better toler- ated than anti-androgen treatment. Nevertheless, the gains are modest and it is helpful to have an objective measure, such as serial standardized clinical photographs, to convince the patient (and the physician) of the response. Although the recommended dosing schedule is 1 mL twice daily, 2 mL once daily is more convenient and, from clinical experience, appears to be as effec- tive. Antiandrogens The antiandrogens cyproterone acetate, spironolactone and ﬂutamide have all been used to treat female androgenetic alopecia, as has the 5α-reductase inhibitor ﬁnasteride, although none is licensed for this purpose and there is little clinical trial evidence of efﬁcacy for any of them. It also has progestational activ- ity and suppresses the production of gonadotrophins. It is not available in the United States but is widely used in Europe, usually in a cyclical regimen in combination with the oral con- traceptive Dianette™. In a randomized controlled trial in 66 women with female androgenetic alopecia cyproterone acetate 52mg daily plus a combined oral contraceptive was compared with minoxidil solution 2% (63). After 12 months treatment non-vellus hair density increased signiﬁcantly in the minoxidil-treated group but fell in the cyproterone acetate group. However, sub-group analysis showed a small improvement in hair density in women with menstrual irregularities receiving cyproterone actetate. This study suggests that antiandrogens may be beneﬁcial in women with evidence of androgen excess but not in those without, a conclusion in keeping with personal experience of the author. It also blocks androgen receptors and increases metabolic clearance of testosterone. Rushton and colleagues reported that women treated for 12 months with spironolactone showed less hair Androgenetic Alopecia 115 loss than an untreated group (64). In an open uncontrolled case series of 80 women treated for one year with spironolactone (200 mg daily), or cyproterone acetate, 35 (44%) showed improve- ment in hair growth as assessed by standardized photography (65). A randomized trial from Italy compared ﬂutamide 250 mg daily with cyproterone acetate and ﬁnasteride in the treatment of 48 hyper- androgenic women with androgenetic alopecia. Those treated with ﬂutamide showed a modest improvement in hair growth whereas those treated with cyproterone acetate or ﬁnasteride did not (66). The study appears not to have been blinded and the method of assessment, using the Ludwig grading system, was relatively crude. In a large randomized controlled trial in post-menopausal women with androgenetic alo- pecia ﬁnasteride 1 mg daily proved ineffective in preventing hair loss (67). Improvement has been reported, however, in a small cases series of hyperandrogenic women (68) and in a larger series of 37 pre-menopausal women treated for one year with ﬁnasteride 2. In the latter study 62% showed some improvement as assessed by global photography. As with minoxidil treatment has to be continued to maintain a response and women taking antiandrogens should not become pregnant because of the risks of feminizing a male fetus. Dose-related side effects of cyproterone acetate, including weight gain, fatigue, loss of libido, mastodynia, nausea, headaches and depression, are common. There is a signiﬁcant risk of hepatotoxicity with ﬂutamide and cyproterone acetate is also potentially hepatotoxic in high doses. Spironolactone may cause breast soreness and men- strual irregularities but is probably the safest option and is the personal preference of the author. Finasteride is well tolerated and is worth considering in post-menopausal and infertile women. Surgery Hair transplantation is less widely used in women than in men but can give good results in selected cases (57). It is most appropriate in women with pronounced hair loss of limited extent who retain good hair density in the donor site. Those with a mild degree of hair loss are less suitable as are those with involvement of the occipital region. Iron The idea that body iron stores, usually measured as serum ferritin, are important in hair growth is controversial and as yet unsubstantiated in a randomized controlled clinical trial (70). In an open trial of cyclical treatment with cyproterone acetate in women with serum ferritin levels above and below 40µg/l (10 subjects in each group) hair densities increased by about 15% in the high ferritin group after one year of treatment but were unchanged in the low ferritin group (71). However, there are no peer-reviewed trials that have tested the effect of iron supplementation on hair growth. Unfortunately, such trials are expensive and unlikely to be supported by the pharmaceutical industry in view of the lack of commercial potential.