The patient is asked to state his or her major complaint and to describe the symptoms purchase generic kamagra chewable pills erectile dysfunction how common. During the history buy kamagra chewable online from canada does erectile dysfunction cause premature ejaculation, the presence or absence of symptoms of nonallergic conditions must be determined and evaluated buy kamagra chewable 100 mg otc erectile dysfunction doctor karachi. Certain details of the allergic history are so characteristic that they should be always be specifically asked and noted: 1. Are there other symptoms in addition to the presenting complaint that may be allergic in origin? Several allergic symptoms frequently exist simultaneously even though the patient has not associated them with a common cause. If several of these symptoms are present, it is more likely that they all have an allergic origin. Conversely, a single symptom in a single system such as isolated nasal obstruction probably is not allergic. A good response to antihistamines would increase the likelihood that the symptoms have an allergic origin. A prior good response to immunotherapy would strongly implicate an allergic problem. Allergic symptoms are often intermittent, and even in those cases in which they are continuous, there may be intermittent exacerbations. A careful history can often narrow the list of suspected allergens responsible for the symptoms of allergic diseases. This facilitates selection of further diagnostic tests and minimizes the amount of testing performed. Awareness of these reactions can prevent unnecessary and expensive allergic evaluations. Some general characteristics of the antigens responsible for allergic illnesses must be appreciated before an adequate clinical history can be obtained or interpreted. Symptoms characteristically produced by common antigens Pollens The grains of pollen from plants are among the most important antigens that cause clinical sensitization. Most plants produce pollen that is rich in protein, and therefore potentially antigenic. Whether a specific pollen regularly causes symptom or not depends on several factors. The pollens that routinely cause illness usually fulfill four criteria: they are produced in large quantities by a plant that is common; they depend primarily on the wind for their dispersal; they are 2 to 60 m in diameter; and the pollen itself is antigenic. Under natural conditions, transfer of the pollen between flowering plants is accomplished chiefly by insects. These pollens are not widely dispersed in the air; therefore, they are rarely clinically significant. Goldenrod, which is popularly considered to cause hay fever, has little significance because its pollen rapidly falls from the air before it can be dispersed widely and reach the hay fever patient. Ragweed plants also grow abundantly in many geographic areas of the United States and Canada. The seasonal occurrence of tree, grass, and weed pollens varies with the geographic location. Even though many factors may alter the total amount of pollen produced in any year, the season of pollination of a plant remains remarkably constant in any one area from year to year. This is because pollen release is determined by length of day, which is so remarkably consistent, year to year. The physician treating allergies must know which windborne pollens are abundant in the area and their seasons of pollination. The role of many of them in producing allergic symptoms is speculative, but some species have been definitely implicated. Because fungi can colonize almost every possible habitat and reproduce spores prolifically, the air is seldom free of spores. However, seasonal or local influences can greatly alter the number of airborne spores. Periods of warm weather with relatively high humidity allow optimal growth of molds. If this period is followed by hot, dry, windy weather, the spores often become airborne in large concentration. A frost may produce a large amount of dying vegetation, but the decreased temperature may reduce the growth rate of fungi. In contrast, spring and fall provide the relative warmth, humidity, and adequate substrate necessary for the growth of fungi. Deep shade may produce high humidity because of water condensing on cool surfaces. High humidity may occur in areas of water seepage such as basements, refrigerator drip trays, or garbage pails. The role of insects, fungi, and mammals as indoor antigens has been definitely established. House dust mites (Dermatophagoides species) are now recognized as the major source of antigen in house dust ( 1,2). Carpeting, bedding, upholstered furniture, and draperies are the main sanctuaries of dust mites in a home. In tropical climates, storage mites such as Lepidus destructor and Blomia tropicalis are important indoor allergens. Dust mite sensitive patients may have perennial symptoms, although these may be somewhat improved outdoors with less humidity or during summer months. They may have a history of sneezing, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, or mild asthma whenever the house is cleaned or the beds are made. In many dust mite sensitive patients, the history is not so obvious, and the presence of perennial symptoms is the only suggestive feature. A child with a positive skin test to cockroaches is more likely to develop asthma. Animal Danders Particles of skin and the urinary proteins of animals can act as potent antigens. Although cats and dogs are involved most frequently, many other animals are occasionally responsible. A patient with clinical sensitivity to a household pet may have a history similar to that of dust mite sensitive patients. In addition, they may have rapid, marked symptomatic improvement when leaving home or being hospitalized. Symptoms may persist outside the home, however, and patients may use this as inappropriate evidence that animals that they do not wish to eliminate from the environment are not a cause of their problem. Many patients may relate a history of wheal and erythema at a skin site that was scratched or bitten by the animal. Sensitivity to animals always should be suspected when a patient develops fairly severe asthma as an adult.
They were accelerated and focused on a smaller fuorescent screen which in turn is coupled to a re- corder system; for exam- ple a video camera or a flm camera quality 100mg kamagra chewable erectile dysfunction caused by low testosterone. If the technique is coupled with the use of contrast media it is possible to follow the contrast when it is fowing through the blood vessels order 100mg kamagra chewable with amex impotence young men. Shoe-ftting fuoroscopy Today it is almost unbelievable that x-rays was used to fnd the right pair of shoes purchase 100 mg kamagra chewable with visa erectile dysfunction drugs available over the counter. However, during the period 1930 1950 an x-ray fuoroscope like the one shown was used. The system consisted of a vertical wooden cabinet with an opening near the bottom into which the feet were placed. When you looked through one of the three viewing ports on the top of the cabinet (e. When you put your feet in the opening, you were standing on top of the x-ray tube. Measurements made in recent years indicate that the doses to the feet were in the range 0. Analog to digital converters and com- puters were adapted to conventional fuoroscopic image intensifer systems. Angiographic procedures for looking at the blood vessels in the brain, kidneys, arms and legs, and the blood vessels of the heart all have benefted tremendously from the adaptation of digital technology. It is reasonable to assume that all of the flm systems will be replaced by digital x-ray detectors. The digital images can be archived onto compact disks and thus save storage space. The digital images can be retrieved from an archive at any point in the future for refer- ence. On page 173 the picture of a hand is shown together with some old flm- based pictures. Let us therefore look into this technique which played a role in the treatment of tuberculosis in the 1950s and 1960s. The technique was proposed early in the 1900s by the Italian radiologist Alessandro Vallebona. The idea is based on the simple principle of moving synchronously and in opposite directions the X-ray tube and the flm. In order to cover a Alessandro Vallebona lung about 20 x-ray pictures were required. The signals from the detectors were stored and analyzed mathematically in a computer. Scintillation detectors combined with photomultipliers or photo diodes have been used. In order to increase the sensituvity the gas detector is flled with pressurized xenon. The technique has been rapidly developed since the frst scanner presented by Hounsfeld in 1972. Both the x-ray tubes, the detector technique as well as the computer presenta- tions with flters etc. These cartoons given again below represented a misunderstanding at that time and caused a big smile. The misunder- standing was that some people had the idea that it was possible to take x-ray pictures with refected x-rays which means that both the x-ray tube and the flm was in the photographer s box (like an ordinary camera). As a result of this some people feared that you could use an x-ray camera to watch people when they changed into swimming suits inside the small cabins on the beach. A London tailor company advertised therefore that they could make x-ray proof underclothing for ladies. Today with the use of Compton backscattering technique all this is a reality and in fact in use sev- eral places for security. Today we know that it is pos- sible to use refected x-rays and see through cloths. It Scattered photon is a reaction between the x-ray photon and a free l` or loosely bound electron. With the knowledge of backscattered Compton radiation, equipment have been developed for observ- ing objects. The picture is formed by a pencil-shaped beam of x-rays that is sweeping the object. The energy used is approxi- mately 100 keV (100 200 kV tubes) which ensures that the Compton process is dominating. The resolution is (so far) not as good as for ordinary x-rays, but you can easily see objects with an atomic number different from that for tissue. It is possible to use the technique to see the contents of a closed container through the container walls. The technique is excellent for observ- ing hidden objects on people or the cargo in contain- ers objects that is not possible to observe with the usual metal detectors.. The most common radioisotope used in diagnosis is technetium-99, but a large number of other isotopes are in use. Diagnosis For diagnostic purposes we use radioactive tracers which emit gamma rays from within the body. The isotopes are generally short-lived and linked to chemical compounds which permit specifc physi- ological processes to be studied. For a number of years the g-radiation was observed using a so-called gamma camera. When this nuclide decays, it emits a positron, which promptly combines with a nearby electron resulting in the simultaneous emission of two g-photons in opposite directions. With the isotope F-18 as the tracer, it has proven to be the most accurate noninvasive method of detecting and evaluating most cancers. The reason for this is that F-18 can be added to glucose and the tumors have an increased rate of glucose metabolism compared to benign cells. Isotopes for diagnosis Let us point out a couple of important requirements for the use of ra- dioisotopes: 1. Due to the requirement of a short half-life mainly or solely artifcially made isotopes comes into question. This implies that the nuclear medicine started when equipment like the cyclotron and neutron sources like the reactor become available in the 1930s and 1940s. Georg de Hevesy and coworkers used Pb-210 (one of the isotopes in the Uranium-radium-series) and studied the absorption and elimination of lead, bismuth and thallium salts by animal organisms. Chieivitz and Georg de Hevesy administered phosphate la- beled with P 32 to rats and demonstrated the renewal of the mineral constituents of bone.
Management Clinical features Patients are extremely infectious and require barrier Infestations are often asymptomatic although allergy nursing order kamagra chewable cheap erectile dysfunction viagra. The entire skin except the face should be treated may result in itching and lymphadenopathy purchase kamagra chewable 100 mg on-line erectile dysfunction doctor in bangalore. All close contacts re- louse is difcult to nd but eggs (nits) may be seen along quire treatment buy kamagra chewable 100 mg on line erectile dysfunction doctor boca raton, and clothing and bed linen should be the hair shaft. They are most common in Seborrhoeic keratoses patients who burn easily and tan poorly. There is debate Denition as to whether solar keratoses leads to squamous cell car- Seborrhoeic keratoses are a benign localised prolifera- cinoma, or whether squamous cell carcinomas arise in tion of the basal layer of the epidermis. Clinical features Lesions initially appear as a small, well-demarcated, red Incidence brown plaque that progress to become more erythema- Common; by age 40 approximately 10% of individuals tousandhyperkeratotic. Sex M = F Dermatobromas Aetiology/pathophysiology Denition The cause of seborrhoeic keratoses is unclear, although Adermatobroma is a cutaneous nodule containing they occur more commonly on sun-exposed skin. Sex 4F:1M Management If treatment is required, cryotherapy or currettage are Aetiology/pathophysiology usually effective. Historically dermatobromas have been associated with trauma or insect bites, although the cause is unknown. Solar keratoses Denition Clinical features Solar keratoses or actinic keratoses are single, small scaly Lesions occur most commonly on the lower limbs. Management Age Dermatobromas are removed only if troublesome or if Occurs in the middle-aged and elderly. Denition r Port-wine stains are irregular reddish-purple mac- Anaevus is a hamartoma of the skin (a benign over- ules caused by permanent vascular dilatation, which growth of normal tissue). A port-wine stain in r Melanocytic naevi occurring only in the dermal the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve may epidermal junction are referred to as junctional naevi. Aetiology/pathophysiology Almost all naevi are benign, but malignant change may occur with junctional naevi at greatest risk. There is a Lipoma familial dysplastic naevus syndrome (autosomal domi- Denition nant, gene on the short arm of chromosome 1). A lipoma is a lobulated slow growing benign tumour of fatty tissue encased by a thin brous capsule. Clinical features All individuals have one or more benign naevi, they appear as small hyperpigmented at or slightly raised Clinical features areas of skin. Atypical features and those suggestive Lipomastypicallypresentassoft,uctuantmassseparate of malignancy are described later in section Malignant from the overlying skin. If there is any diagnostic uncertainty an elliptical excision biopsy Management and histopathological evaluation should be performed. Haemangiomas Epidermoid cysts Denition Denition Ahaemangioma is an arteriovenous malformation or An epidermoid cyst is an epithelium-lined cavity within proliferation of abnormal blood vessels. Theyusuallydevelopintherstfewweeksoflife, and are thought to arise from the blockage of a hair grow toamaximumintherstyearandthengradually follicle. Clinical features r Cavernous haemangioma are larger and deeper vas- Patients present with a lump in the skin, so the skin can- cular lesions, which may be covered by normal skin. If there is a superimposed infection the Aetiology lump may become red, hot and tender. It is thought that there is herniation of synovial tissue from a joint capsule or tendon sheath. Management r Uninfected cysts are excised under local anaesthesia, if required using an elliptical incision. Excision Aganglion may present as a swelling or pain commonly is performed if still necessary once the infection has around the wrist or the dorsum of the hand. Aspiration and Denition injection of a crystalline steroid may be useful, and in- Acyst arising from deep implanted epidermal cells. Aetiology/pathophysiology Dermoid cysts arise from epidermal cells, which have been implanted into the dermis either during embry- Skin tumours onic development or following trauma. They are lined with squamous epithelium and contain sebum, cells and occasionally hair. The surrounding skin Sex and subcutaneous tissue may be erythematous and M > F swollen. Geography Management Most common in Caucasians, and uncommon in dark- Dermoid cysts are surgically removed. Aetiology Basal cell carcinomas are predisposed to by light and ionising radiation. Sun exposure is the most important Ganglion aetiological factor particularly in individuals with fair Denition skin, pale eyes and red hair. Childhood sun exposure Abenign cystic swelling occurring over a joint or tendon appears to be important, especially if there is repeated sheath. Only a minority of basal cell carcinomas become locally r Bowen s disease is squamous carcinoma in situ. Such areas require 5-uorouracil Clinical features cream, cryotherapy or curettage. And three patterns are recognised: Clinical features r Nodularbasalcellcarcinomaisthemostcommontype Mostsquamouscellcarcinomaspresentwithalocallyin- (60%) appearing as a rm pink-coloured raised nod- vasive and well-differentiated papule, nodule or plaque, ule,oftenwithtelangiectaticvesselswithinthenodule. Squamous cell car- r Supercial basal cell carcinoma (30%) occurs on the cinoma metastasise initially to regional lymph nodes trunk as a at scaly red plaque, often with an irregular which should be examined. Malignant melanoma Management Complete excision is curative, local recurrence may oc- Denition cur especially with morphoeic and supercial types. Ra- Malignant skin tumour, which arises from melanocytes diotherapy can be used for large supercial carcinomas usually in the epidermis. Prognosis Excision achieves a 95% cure with a recurrence rate of Age 5% at 5 years. Denition A malignant tumour originating from squamous cells Aetiology on the outer layer of the skin. Around 30% of melanomas arise from the junctional component of a pre-existing naevus, which has become Aetiology/pathophysiology dysplastic. Excess sun exposure, particularly a history Sunlight and ionising radiation predispose to the devel- of childhood sunburn, is the major risk factor. Highest opment epidermal dysplastic lesions: incidence in Caucasians with fair skin. Lymph node raised brown-black nodule, although occasionally dissection is required if there is evidence of lymph amelanotic lesions are seen. Radiotherapy, immunotherapy and extension, the skin lesion may therefore not increase chemotherapy are used in metastatic disease. The Prognosis malignant change is heralded by the appearance of Prognosis is worse with increasing thickness and stage, anodule in lentigo maligna. Symptoms Clinical features The history should include when and how the lump was Breast lumps discovered, whether it has grown and whether there have Breast tissue is normally lumpy and women commonly been any previous lumps.
By C. Ateras. Ohio Northern University.