Other effective treatments include oral rent information and other considerations order prednisolone cheap online allergy treatment laser technology, most impor- contraceptives that inhibit ovulation and suppress tantly the agents interpretation of the patients prostaglandin production in the lining of the uterus previously expressed and implied wishes purchase prednisolone 20 mg on line allergy over the counter. A specialized procedure to cut specific irrelevant cheap 40mg prednisolone fast delivery allergy testing raleigh, however, for people who do not have avail- nerves causing the pain (laparoscopic uterosacral nerve able to name as a potential agent someone else whom ligation) has been used in patients who have not been they can trust to make future medical decisions for helped by standard medical therapy. Living wills Secondary dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramping due to pelvic pathology. This may occur at any age after menarche and before menopause and is usually seen in women over 20 years of age. A com- Suggested Reading plete history and physical examination along with diag- Bishop, S. Crossing the decisional abyss: An evaluation of sur- nostic tests such as laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, rogate decision-making statutes as a means of bridging the gap ultrasound, and hysterosalpingography (specialized between post-Quinlan red tape and the realization of an incom- imaging test to examine the uterus and tubes going out petent patients right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. The legal and functional status of the medical include cervical stenosis (cervical closure/narrowing), proxy: Suggestions for statutory reform. In addition, secondary dysmenorrhea may occur in patients with psychological issues. Many causes of sec- ondary dysmenorrhea require surgical management but some patients may benefit from a referral to a chronic Dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is painful pain management clinic where a multidisciplinary menstrual cramping in the absence of pelvic pathology approach to their pain is planned. The pain involves the uterus and can also radiate to the lower back and thigh area. Pediatric and adolescent ical trauma such as previous sexual abuse or sexual gynecology. The woman seeking evaluation for dyspareunia should have an accurate record of her current medications and pre- vious medical and surgical history. The sexual history will be important to discuss, including any previous Dyspareunia Pain during or after sexual inter- abuse, the onset of the symptoms, and whether any course is called dyspareunia. Women with dyspareunia remedies have been tried (such as lubricants if vaginal may experience pain in the labia, clitoris, vagina, or dryness has been experienced). There are many causes of dyspareu- The physical examination will require a thorough nia, and most can be treated successfully. Some women experience painful cause of the pain, the physician will obtain cultures to spasms of the vaginal muscles with intercourse known detect infection or biopsies of chronically irritated as vaginismus. Certain medications can also cause vaginal dryness, including tamoxifen and The treatment should be aimed at the cause of the antihistamines. Conditions leading to vaginal dryness can usually Certain chronic skin conditions, such as eczema be successfully treated with lubricants (such as and lichen planus, can cause irritation to the labial area. Vaginal and urinary tract infections dition called vulvar vestibulitis is a chronic irritation of are almost always successfully treated with the appro- the tissue at the opening of the vagina. Endometriosis may require treatments uterus migrate up through the fallopian tubes and grow that are either medical (medications to reduce or sup- abnormally inside the pelvis. This may lead to pain press growth) or surgical (to remove the abnormal with intercourse, painful menses (dysmenorrhea), growths). Infections such as urinary tract Dyspareunia that results from previous psycholog- (bladder) infections, vaginal infections, and sexually ical trauma or pain that remains undiagnosed after a 234 Dysthymia medical evaluation, often requires psychological coun- dysthymia was first used in 1980 in order to bring a seling. Therapists with specific training and interest in clearer understanding of depressive disorders that did dyspareunia and other sexual disorders can provide not meet the criteria for major depression, were more effective treatment leading to improvement. Perhaps a good definition is that of a chronic, low-grade depression that lasts more than 2 years. If vaginal infections are a problem, avoid tight conditions than men from adolescence through clothing. In fact about 75% of those with wipe front to back after urinating, and urinate dysthymic disorder have another psychiatric diagnosis, soon after intercourse. Mayo Clinic complete book of pregnancy much less likely to have positive results on tests of the and babys first year. Psychological theories relate to early develop- mental problems while cognitive theories revolve around diminished self-esteem and sense of helpless- ness. In helping make the diagnosis one must take care to be sure that the person does not have major depres- Dysthymia Dysthymic disorder is a chronic mood sion, and if one does, it is known as double depression. About half of those with dysthymia have for most of the day for at least 2 years in adults and gradual onset prior to age 25. Women with these disorders complain that they have been depressed dysthymia are also at risk for premenstrual syndrome for as long as they can recall. Newer treatments include some of the 235 Dysthymic Disorder medications that raise serotonin levels of the neuro- Suggested Reading transmitters such as the antidepressants Prozac, Zoloft, Sadock, J. Depression may be secondary to the African American women, but are still less frequent than physiological sequelae of semistarvation and resolve in Caucasian women. Female athletes involved in run- only after partial or complete weight restoration. Intake levels the brain) during the anorectic state than after hyperali- should start at 3040 kcal/kg per day in divided meals. Some believe self-starvation while vitamins and mineral supplements replenish defi- develops as adolescents struggle to be unique and inde- ciencies. Praising positive effort yet restricting exercise pendent, yet respond to societal pressures to be slender. Patients with somatization disorder do not gen- self-monitoring as well as exposure and response erally express a morbid fear of obesity, and are less prevention can strengthen gains. KluverBucy syndrome is a rare condi- functional family patterns and interpersonal distress. Individuals can maintain nor- KleinLevin syndrome, another uncommon disorder, is mal eating behaviors as well as treat associated psychi- more frequent in men, and consists of hyperphagia and atric symptoms. Antidepressants like serotonin-specific periodic hypersomnia (excessive sleeping). Tricyclic antidepressants should tions are related to weight loss and purging (vomiting be used with caution due to greater risks of cardiac and laxative abuse). Occasionally, low doses of antipsychotics can be used for marked agitation with psychotic thinking. There is no evidence regarding efficacy of 238 Ectopic Pregnancy biphosphonates in treatment of associated osteoporosis. Long-term out- Agents which encourage bowel motility, such as come of bulimia nervosa. The most common site of occurrence is in the nortriptyline, desipramine, and monoamine oxidase fallopian tube. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy has been used to treat depression, but higher doses of fluoxetine steadily increasing. The is contraindicated in purging bulimic patients, who have increased incidence of ectopic pregnancy is thought to greater risk of seizures.
The work with high-frequency vibrating hand-held tools prednisolone 40 mg low cost mould allergy treatment uk, in the form of primarily tooth drills generic prednisolone 20mg on line allergy medicine stronger than allegra, for up to 1 order prednisolone 40 mg with visa allergy testing qml. Nor have there been any extraordinary vibration stresses that might give grounds for submission of the claim to the Occupational Diseases Committee. Examples of decisions on degenerative arthritis of elbow/wrist Example 12: Recognition of degenerative arthritis of the elbow (metal grinder for 30 years) A 52-year-old man had worked for 30 years as a metal grinder, grinding metal about 5 hours a day. For grinding he used hand-held and very severely vibrating grinding machines with an acceleration power 2 between 18 and 20 m/s. After 30 years exposure he began to have problems with his left elbow, which he was unable to fully extend, and he had tingling in all fingers of his left hand. The metal grinder had not had fractures to elbow, wrist or other parts of his left arm. For 30 years and many hours a day he was 2 exposed to very severely vibrating hand-held tools with a vibration intensity of more than 10 m/s, and there is no information of competitive factors of any significance for the onset of the disease. Example 13: Claim turned down degenerative arthritis of the wrist (floor layer for 45 years) Since completing his apprenticeship at the age of 20, a 65-year-old floor layer had been laying floors many hours a day. He also occasionally sanded the floors, using a big sanding machine, but the extent of this work was only a few days a month. The floor layer was not exposed to hand-arm vibrations from very severely vibrating hand-held tools for several hours a day for a large number of years. Nor have there been any other extraordinary stresses which might give grounds for submission of the claim to the Occupational Diseases Committee. Item on the list The following diseases of hand and forearm are included on the list of occupational diseases (group C, item 1): Disease Exposure C. Tendovaginitis (inflammation of the synovial Strenuous and repetitive work movements, in sheath) and inflammatory degeneration of tendon or combination with an assessment of the working tissue surrounding the tendon (tendinitis and periten- posture of the hand in connection with the load dinitis) 1. Diagnosis requirements A medical doctor must have made one of the following diagnoses: Tendovaginitis (inflammatory degeneration of a synovial sheath), tendinitis (inflammatory degeneration of a tendon), or peritendinitis (inflammatory degeneration of the tissue surrounding a tendon). Objective signs 151 Direct tenderness and pain in connection with palpation of the area. In the acute phase there may be swelling and grating, the same as when trying to squeeze a bag of potato flour Indirect tenderness and aggravation of pain in connection with resistance movements and extension of the tendon Tenderness along the tendons or the transition between tendons and muscles of the forearm (at the elbow joint or the wrist), without actual muscular tenderness 1. Exposure requirements As for the diseases of hand and forearm covered by the item on the list, there must have been strenuous and repetitive work movements. The load must be seen in combination with an assessment of the awkwardness of the working posture, i. In principle there must have been a relevant load for at least half of the working day (3-4 hours). In terms of intensity, the load needs to be mechanically and physiologically relevant in relation to the disease in question. Therefore, whether or not the work is stressful for the hand or the forearm depends on a concrete assessment of the general work load in relation to the disease. Strenuous work Relevant elements in the assessment of whether the work is strenuous can be the degree of use of muscular force of hand/wrist in connection with the work whether the work involves application of gripping force whether the unit gives resistance whether there are simultaneous twisting or turning movements awkward working postures for hand/wrist besides Repetitive work In order for it to be characterised as repetitive, the work must involve repeated movements of the fingers or the hand, at a certain frequency/intensity, for a substantial part of the working day. The frequency of stressful movements cannot be determined in detail, but depends on a concrete assessment of the repetition frequency, seen in relation to the work strenuousness and the posture of the hand or wrists. Awkward working postures The assessment of whether the working posture is awkward for the hand/wrist takes into account if and to what extent the hand/wrist is exposed to awkward flexion, pulling or turning movements. This is the posture of the joint that gives the optimal function of the extremity (extremity = arm or leg). Movements that occur in other positions than the normal posture are characterised as awkward. Combined load assessment If there is a very high degree of strenuous work and/or very awkward working postures for the hand/wrist, the requirement to the repetition frequency will be relatively smaller. Similarly, in connection with slightly to moderately strenuous work and/or good to optimal working postures, the requirement to the repetition frequency will be larger. Diseases after highly repetitive work without a certain degree of strenuousness will not, however, qualify for recognition on the basis of the item of the list, just as strenuous work without repetition is not included. If different work functions have been performed in the course of the working day, the assessment will include the overall load on the hand/wrist, as well as the load of each work function and the total duration of the load. Thus, alternating work functions, and therefore a certain variation in the work, may well result in a relevant and sufficient hand or wrist load. For example there may be alternation between very strenuous work with slight to moderate repetition for one third of the working day, and highly repetitive, but only moderately strenuous work with the wrist held in awkward positions for one third of the day. In the last third of the working day, no work is performed that is stressful for the hand or wrist. In such cases there is alternation between different work functions in the course of the working day, where two of the work functions meet the requirements to relevant exposure and where, at the same time, the exposures stretch over more than half of the working day. The load will be assessed in relation to a persons size and physiognomy, and there needs to be good time correlation between the exposure and the onset of the disease. In our processing of the claim, we may obtain a medical certificate from a specialist of occupational medicine. The medical specialist will furthermore make an individual assessment of the impact of exposure factors on the development of the disease in question in the particular examined person. Examples of pre-existing and competitive diseases/factors Degenerative arthritis of fingers and/or wrists Rheumatoid arthritis of fingers and/or wrists Symptoms from tendons and muscles as a consequence of age (age-related degeneration) Effects of a fractured wrist Systemic diseases (for example diabetes) 1. Managing claims without applying the list Only tendovaginitis and inflammatory degeneration of a tendon or tissue surrounding a tendon (tendinitis and peritendinitis) of the hand or forearm are covered by item C. Furthermore there need to have been exposures meeting the recognition requirements. Examples of diseases that may be recognised after submission to the Committee are arthritic diseases of the hand and radial tunnel syndrome. Examples of decisions based on the list Example 1: Recognition of tendovaginitis of right thumb in laboratory technician (pipetting) A young woman worked for several years as a bio-analyst in a hospital. Half of the working time her work consisted in de-pipetting with various pipettes. She held nd rd th th the pipette in a full hand grip with the 2, 3, 4 and 5 fingers of her right hand, while activating the pipette with her thumb. When using the manual pipettes, she virtually had to overstretch her thumb and then abduct it 2-3 centimetres. Furthermore, when activated, the manual pipettes required some exertion of her right thumb. She performed about 225 de-pipettings per hour, equivalent to a cycle time of about 20 seconds per manoeuvre. She would typically do sequences of pipetting work part of the day, sometimes more than one sequence a day. For a one-week period she made de-pipettings for 5-6 hours a day with manual pipettes.
This implies reviewing the different types of enrichment used (physical discount prednisolone 20mg with mastercard allergy symptoms eye twitch, occupational discount prednisolone 10 mg amex allergy vs sinus, food 10mg prednisolone visa allergy symptoms 4 weeks, sensory and social enrichment) and how enrichment affects animal behavior. Finally, we discuss how the above-mentioned issues can be implemented, taking the model of an environmental enrichment programme used at the Disney Animal Kingdom Theme Park as a reference. At the end of the chapter, we discuss the use of environmental enrichment in breeding centers for the conservation of the Iberian lynx. In any case, the main objectives of an environmental enrichment programme are the following (Young, 2003): 1) Increasing behavioral repertoire of captive animals. These territories are impossible to recreate in captivity, especially taking into account ethical problems and public reaction towards supplying live prey for zoological specimens. On the other hand, felids habituate relatively rapidly to novel conditions for which, according to Mellen (1998), enrichment should be dynamic and constantly modifed to effectively induce the behaviors in captives that are more characteristic of their wild counterparts. However, there are many studies and publications about the different possibilities of enrichment. The proposal we analyze now has been based on the classifcation model formulated by Segonds Pichon (1994) and adapted by Lozano-Ortega for rescue and rehabilitation centers (1999). Ph y s I c a l e n R I c h m e n t This comprises space and furnishing, whether permanent or not. The objective is to achieve a complex environment, with an optimum level and frequency of stress-stimuli to provide challenges to which animals should respond by exercising natural behavior. An adequate use of volume is capable of increasing the delimited functional space of an enclosure. Furnishing is often used to recreate a captive environment as naturalistic as possible. To accomplish this purpose, a large variety of substrate can be used on the enclosure foor, in addition to placing trees and bushes proper to the animals wild habitat. The introduction of furniture in an animals enclosure diminishes stress, increases desirable and decreases abnormal behavior (Healy et al. A constant introduction of new stimuli is convenient to elicit exploratory behavior and marking, in this way avoiding habituation to the environment which could result in an increase of stereotypic behavior (Mellen et al. It is important to remove devices when animals loose interest in order to repeat the experience later on. Manipulative devices can stimulate both solitary and social play (Kleiman, 1996) but it is convenient to provide suffcient quantity of items in order to avoid dominant individuals monopolizing them (Lozano-Ortega, 1999). In the case of felids, the most widely used objects are imitations of prey, or at least devices which induce hunting-related behavior, even if these are not associated with food. Items such as Boomer balls or other plastic toys elicit stalking and pouncing behavior (Mellen et al. Attempts should be made to provide a variety of materials, shapes and textures in order to select the items with the most satisfactory responses. If food enrichment is desired it is recommended to use novel food, environmental enrichment devices, or to vary food presentation. However, it is recommendable to complement this activity with other enrichment methods for a greater expansion of the behavioural repertoire. For fshing felids, for example, another method which can be used is to provide insects as well as live fsh. For instance, by simply hiding food portions within the whole enclosure, Shepherdson et al. The fnal objective is to provide an environment in which an animal will obtain food as a consequence of its hunting behavior and food search which is important for improving animal welfare and approximating it as much as possible to what would be a wild environment (Kleiman D. Shepherdson (1993) observed that an increment in the number of feedings per day, and at unpredictable times, augments exploratory behavior and diminishes stereotype behaviour frequency and durability. However it is necessary to survey animal reactions at all times, as some studies have reported an increase in pacing associated with odor introduction (clark et al. In any case exposures should be short and spaced in time to avoid habituation (Schuett et al. As for solitary felids, the possibility of introducing two individuals in a same enclosure depends as much on the species as on the individual concerned. This is because in the same species some individuals will tolerate cohabitation with others, and others not (Mellen et al. In t e R a c t I o n s w I t h h u m a n b e I n g s Influence of felid-keeper interactions has been previously discussed by many authors. Likewise, there is a positive relation between the interaction levels with keepers and reproduction success. This type of interaction also has an effect on reducing time animals devote to pacing. Another kind of interaction between animals and keepers is employing instrumental conditioning or positive reinforcement for training animals, easing veterinary procedures and handling, besides increasing animal cognitive abilities and benefiting its welfare (Basset et al. When the fnal destiny of a captive animal is to be reintroduced in the wild, one of the main problematic matters is to avoid the animals loss of fear of human beings. Also to be avoided are neotony and extended infantile behavior which appear in artifcially bred animals kept in captivity (Lozano-Ortega, 1999). Pl a n n I n g a n e n v I R o n m e n t a l e n R I c h m e n t P R o g R a m m e When an institution plans to carry out an enrichment programme, it is not enough to take some of the examples described in available information. For the Programme to be successful, it is necessary to elaborate an action plan including quantifable goals and results. A successful environmental enrichment plan should anticipate animal necessities and provide them with the opportunity of choice, within their environment, as well as the possibility of confronting the various stimuli presented. Subsequent to these outlines, when planning this programme six points should be respected. The frst thing to undertake is to carry out an investigatory task to achieve a full knowledge of the species naturalistic behavior, biology, history and habitat. In the same way, individual characteristics of the animals involved, and the handling conditions which could beneft or prejudice the establishment of the programmes intended measures should be taken into account. Once all these aspects have been considered, a decision should be made concerning the desirable behaviors which it is wished to encourage through enrichment and the undesirable behaviors it is hoped to avoid. Desirable behaviors should be prioritized according to their importance and the ease with which they can be induced. The fnal goal is to obtain a list of enrichment proposals, for which every proposal will be associated with a desirable behavior. Pl a n n I n g The following step is to achieve the approval, by means of all the staff concerned, of the list of proposals obtained in the above point. To achieve this approval, all the project should be subjected to a strict analysis of possible risks in which the enrichment programme could affect animal security and enclosures. All the materials and methods used should be analyzed from all points of view to assure their safety.
Las proyecciones de crecimiento indican que el Programa Ex situ debera alcanzar su meta poblacional para el ao 2010 y que una vez logrado este primer paso cheap prednisolone 5mg with mastercard allergy medicine you can take with alcohol, podr dar comienzo la reintroduccin de ejemplares nacidos en cautividad generic 10 mg prednisolone with amex allergy symptoms 6 weeks. El Programa se encuentra actualmente por delante de las proyecciones buy prednisolone 40mg overnight delivery allergy shots cats, habiendo alcanzado su objetivo poblacional en el ao 2009, aunque la primera reintroduccin de ejemplares de lince nacidos en cautividad sigue programada para el ao 2010. Hemos considerado particularmente importante el adaptar nuestros mtodos de manejo para ayudar a fomentar los comportamientos naturales del lince (caza, territorialidad, interacciones sociales) y ofrecer as un entorno cautivo que minimice el estrs y favorezca la reproduccin natural. El presente captulo tiene como objetivo ofrecer una visin global sobre cmo los conocimientos cientfcos aportados a travs diversas disciplinas han sido esenciales para el diseo y desarrollo del Programa de cra del Lince ibrico. The main goals of the Ex situ Conservation Programme are to: 1) maintain a genetically and demographically-managed captive population; 2) create new Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus) free-ranging populations through reintroduction. To achieve the frst goal, the Programme aims at maintaining 85% of the genetic diversity presently found in the wild for the next 30 years. Growth projections indicate that the Ex situ Programme should achieve such population target by the year 2010 and, once this goal is reached, reintroduction efforts could begin. The Programme actually surpassed this population target in 2009, although the frst reintroduction of captive- born Iberian lynxes is still scheduled for 2010. To date, ex situ efforts have focused on producing physiologically and behaviourally sound captive-born individuals. Particularly important has been adapting our husbandry schemes based on research data to promote natural behaviours in captivity (hunting, territoriality, social interactions) and a stress-free environment that is conducive to natural reproduction. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of how scientifc knowledge from various disciplines is proving essential to shape management efforts within the Iberian Lynx Breeding Programme. The Programme stresses the importance of adapting our husbandry schemes based on research data to promote natural behaviours in captivity (hunting, territoriality, social interactions) and a stress-free environment that is conducive to natural reproduction. Some relevant research areas include: determining fecal hormone profles for adult and subadult lynx (Pelican et al. Within this scheme, one of our goals is to minimize the use of potentially invasive methods while simultaneously enhancing the trust between the animals and their keepers to assist in securing information on animal weight and gestational status. Between 2005 and 2008, a total of ffteen pregnancies resulted in the birth of 31 live offspring, of which 24 survive to date (Vargas et al. While describing various organizational aspects of the iberian Lynx conservation Breeding Programme, this chapter will present an overview of the information contained in various chapters of this book while emphasizing how results from multidisciplinary life science research can be integrated into an adaptive management approach to help recover the worlds most endangered felid species. Portugal, where no iberian lynx populations were detected during the last 20022003 census, has developed its own ex situ conservation action plan in coordination with the Spanish Programme (Serra et al. The Plans most recent update, which emphasizes habitat conservation using ex situ efforts as a working tool, has been recently endorsed by the highest Spanish authorities at the Sectorial conference, in May 2008 (Vargas et al. The main Ex situ Programme goals are twofold: 1) To maintain a genetically and demographically managed captive population that serves as a safety net for the species and 2) To help establish new iberian lynx free-ranging populations through reintroduction programmes. To accomplish these goals, the iberian Lynx conservation Breeding Programme encompasses management and applied research strategies in the following six areas. At the time of this frst analysis in Spring 2004 there were six wild-caught lynxes already at El Acebuche captive breeding center, a facility that was constructed in 1991 in Doana national Park, Southeastern Spain. At the same time, modelling suggested the feasibility of maintaining 85% of the existing genetic diversity for the next 30 years. The outcome eventually would be the ex situ management of 60 individuals (30 males, 30 females) as breeding stock (Lacy and Vargas, 2004; Godoy et al. This goal could be attained by adding four founders (mostly cubs or juveniles) per year for 5 years as well as one extra founder every 2 years (from the handicapped lynxes that normally enter rescue centres) for the entire duration of the Programme. This level of extraction rate would have a minor impact on the viability of the wild populations according to the model designed by Palomares et al. Following this scheme, the Programme could achieve its population target of 60 individuals by 2009 and reintroduction of captive-raised lynxes could begin in 2010, provided that adequate habitat was prepared. Originally, modelling predicted the availability of 12 to 13 captive-born lynxes 61 annually from 2011 through 2019 (Lacy and Vargas, 2004). A recent update of the projections, using data from actual captive reproduction over the past 5 years, indicates that the annual number of animals available for release every year will oscillate between 20 and 40 iberian lynxes (Godoy et al. During the past seven years (from Spring 2002 to 2008), the Andalusian government has extracted 26 wild-born iberian lynxes for the captive Breeding Programme; in addition, 10 more lynxes were brought into captivity because they had problems that compromised their survival in the wild (Simn et al. The year 2008 marked the end of the planned extractions of wild lynxes for incorporation into the breeding population; still, those found injured or handicapped with compromised probabilities of survival in the wild will continue to trickle into the Breeding Programme. To provide the captive space needed to achieve the Programmes genetic goals, construction of two new iberian lynx breeding centers Granadilla (Extremadura) y Odelouca (Silves, Portugal) is underway. An additional center in cabaeros (castille-La Mancha) is also scheduled for future construction. All breeding centers are strategically placed so they can be co-managed by administrations that commit to habitat preparation for future reintroductions. All centers considered, the captive population will be managed as a metapopulation, a genetic counterpart to the Sierra Morena and Doana free-ranging populations (Godoy et al. One of the Programmes key husbandry challenges is to strike a balance between fostering natural behaviours in captivity (hunting, territoriality, social interactions, etc. For this reason, the Breeding Programme favours naturalistic enclosures and promotes natural behaviours via environmental enrichment (Manteca, this book; Martos, this book). Some of these include obtaining regular weights by having the lynx step on a measuring scale. Such techniques are designed to avoid using invasive methods, which would stress the animals, and they also serve as a way to strengthen the trust between the animals and their keepers. Special care is taken to avoid domestication of captive lynxes, although this becomes a greater challenge in the case of hand-reared, abandoned cubs (Rivas et al. Breeding season in captivity mostly takes place throughout January and February, with most births occurring in March and April, as it is the case in the wild (Palomares et al. The actual mating period lasts between two and three days during which lynxes copulate an average of 28 times (range: 13-65; n=460 copulatory bouts in 21 pairs; Table 1). Gestation period, counted from the time of the frst copulation, ranges from 63-66 days (n=12). All parturitions that have occurred before 61 gestational days (n=4) have resulted in the birth of either dead or weak and not completely developed young, which were considered premature. Although variation between individuals is very high, most females are very consistent regarding their own timing to enter estrous and regarding the number of days they are gravid (Table 1). Labour during whelping (regarded as the time lapsed between the frst visible contractions until the delivery 63 of the last offspring) varies widely between females, with some of them delivering each young within 10-15 min intervals while others taking up to 9 hours between the delivery of each offspring (Table 1). Primiparous females have a higher rate of failure to raise their young than multiparous ones. Out of the eight females that have whelped at El Acebuche center, only two frst-time mothers Saliega and Aura managed to nurse all their young until weaning age. Two other dams Esperanza and Boj kept only one of their cubs after whelping and abandoned the rest of the offspring in their frst litter, while three other females Adelfa, Aliaga and Brisa miscarried one of their offspring and delivered the rest of the cubs prematurely during their frst gestation. This non-intrusive surveillance system has also allowed us to identify the existence of a sensitive period when iberian lynx cubs become highly competitive to the point of siblicide (Vargas et al. Spontaneous aggression erupted at 44 days of age in the frst iberian lynx litter born in captivity. The largest cub (a female) in a litter of three was killed by a brother who delivered lethal bites to the larynx and skull. Agonistic behaviour has been observed in nine of eleven subsequent iberian lynx litters of two or more cubs, with the most intensive fghting occurring around the end of the sixth and seventh post-natal weeks, respectively (Antonevich et al.
Phenotypic analysis is more costly and time consuming but gives dose-specific information regarding resistance patterns discount prednisolone 20 mg online allergy testing christchurch new zealand. A computer-generated virtual phenotype test is available that translates genotype information into phenotypic patterns cheap prednisolone on line allergy shots for asthma. Treatment-experienced patients can be expected to have multiple resistance mutations to complicate the choice of therapy buy 40mg prednisolone with amex allergy link. Changing a failing regimen should involve substituting at least two active drugs by resistance testing, within new or different classes, if possible (Table 10. Adding a fourth drug to a failing regimen or changing only one of the components is not advised and fosters resistance. Successive treatment regimens are invariably less convenient for patients and involve administration that is more frequent. In patients with highly resistant virus, it may be impossible to fully suppress viral load to undetectable levels in which case, reduction in virus to the lowest possible levels remains the goal of treatment. In addition to regular health care, patients require at 10 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 179 Table 10. Perinatology and Infectious Disease specialists should be involved whenever possible. Resistance assays should be done when pregnancy is initially diagnosed, unless the woman is on a maximally suppressive regimen, i. Women who do not require treatment for their own health based on cur- rent recommendations (i. Harris should continue unless it contains efavirenz or nevirapine, in which case a ritona- vir-boosted protease should be substituted. Zidovudine monotherapy after 14 weeks is no longer recommended but may be considered in women with viral loads < 1,000 who are opposed to triple therapy. At the time of rupture of membranes, 200mg nevirapine with a 2 mg/kg nevirapine single dose for the infant is used in resource- poor settings. Regimens of 300mg zidovudine twice daily and 300mg lamivudine, and with either saquinavir 1,000 mg/rit 100 twice daily or the use of coformulated lopinavir/rito- navir 200/50 twice daily (with possible dosage increase during third trimester) have been most widely studied in pregnancy, are well-tolerated and safe. Viral load should be followed at least each trimester and again at 36 weeks in preparation for delivery. If C-section is not desired or possible, vaginal delivery should be done in a timely fashion; oxytocin augmentation should be considered. Artificial or prolonged rupture of membranes, invasive monitoring, forceps, and vacuum extraction are avoided to reduce fetal exposure to maternal blood; methergine vasoconstriction is exagerated by proteases and efavirenz and its use should be minimized or avoided unless absolutely necessary. C-section after rup- ture of membranes offers no reduced infection benefit to the baby. If the viral load is <1,000, transmission rates are low even for vaginal delivery. Breastfeeding is associated with up to 40% vertical transmission and is contraindicated. Postnatal 2 mg/kg zidovudine should be given to all infants whose mothers test positive as soon as possible and then every 6 hours. Exposed infants should be viral load tested by 48 hours, 14 days, 1 to 2 months, and again at 3 to 6 months. Two negative virologic tests after 1 month exclude infection if the second test is done after 4 months. Staging and progression of disease in infants and young children is very differ- ent from adults. Primary care physicians should be aware of the medication regimen and side effects and vigilant about adherence issues with families and caregivers. There have been no reported cases of occupational transmission from human bites or a source patient in the window of antibody formation. Harris antiretroviral medication is recommended as soon as practical, preferably within 2 hours. Risk of transmission is proportional to amount of blood exposure; other fluids have lower risk, which increases if the fluid is bloody. Less risk of infection is conferred from closed and suture needles, mucous membrane splash exposure, and contact with vaginal secretions or semen. Healthcare workers should report to the closest facility, usually an emergency department, as soon as they become aware of an exposure, whenever possible. Patients should be followed up in 3 to 5 days to assess adher- ence and offer further emotional support. Hepatitis C co-infection is common because of overlapping risk factors and will progress more rapidly; treatment times may be longer. Cellulitis and Erysipelas Cellulitis is an acute, painful, spreading erythematous infection involving the dermis and subcutaneous tissues, with poorly demarcated borders. Erysipelas is a superficial skin infection usually limited to the upper dermis and lymphatics most commonly caused by Group A Streptococcus, and characterized by intense erythema and edema with a clearly demarcated, indurated border. Pathophysiology Intact skin in a normal host is generally impervious to infection. The skin is protected from infection by an active, intact immune system and the antimicrobial properties of the fatty acid layer. Many conditions, however, can compromise these defenses and allow for the introduction of potential pathogens and subsequent development of infection. The interdigital spaces, especially in patients with tinea pedis, are a common entry point for pathogens causing cellulitis in the lower extremity. Chronic arm lymphedema often presents after breast cancer surgery and may put a woman at risk for cellulitis of the upper extremity. Bacteriology Most cases of cellulitis are caused by Group A streptococci, other hemolytic streptococci, or Staphylococcus aureus. Diabetic foot infections, which are discussed in a separate chapter, always involve multiple pathogens, including aerobic gram-negative bacilli and anaer- obes in addition to the common gram-positive bacteria. Human and animal bites, reviewed in the next section, may be infected with either the oral flora of the biter and/or the skin flora of the victim. Lyme disease, which is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, presents in its early stage with clinical manifestations that may be confused with cellulitis. In contrast, most community-acquired staphylococcal infec- tions have traditionally been caused by methicillin-susceptible S. Clindamycin suscepti- bility is more variable, because of the presence of inducible resistance mechanisms in some of these strains. Bullae, ecchymoses, petechiae, and local abscess formation may all be a part of the clinical signs of cellulitis. Erysipelas is a more superficial infection than cellulitis, involving the upper dermis and lymphatics, and is characterized by its well-demarcated borders.
Histopathological and immuno- histochemical fndings in lymphoid tissues of the endange- Fernndez 20 mg prednisolone fast delivery allergy treatment elderly, J best purchase prednisolone allergy testing for shellfish. A new method to estimate re- mentation and population decline on the endangered Ibe- latedness from molecular markers discount prednisolone 20mg on-line allergy forecast orlando. Effects of matrix heterogeneity on animal dispersal: subdivided populations in conservation programmes: Deve- From individual behavior to metapopulation-level parame- lopment of a novel dynamic system. Jour- terns of contraction in the geographic range of the Iberian nal of Heredity 95, 19-28. Funda- quences of demographic reduction and genetic depletion in cin Biodiversidad, Madrid, Spain. A genetic resource losophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological bank and assisted reproduction for the critically endan- Sciences 360, 1367-1378. Genetic effects of multiple gene- large, mobile mammalian predator: the Scandinavian lynx. Preserving Population Allele Frequencies in Ex situ conser- populations undergoing selection. Entre los numerosos motivos que dieron lugar a la crea- cin de este libro genealgico cabe resaltar que casi el 50% de los individuos en cautividad eran de origen desconocido, que haban tenido lugar muchas reintroducciones a partir de animales cautivos, que se estaban obteniendo muchos individuos mediante la cra en cautividad y que los linces cautivos estaban siendo objeto de una gran diversidad de estudios. El estudio del libro genealgico revel un gran nmero de problemas y discrepancias, entre los que fguraban los siguientes puntos: alto nivel de endogamia, gran nmero de individuos de origen desconocido y numerosos individuos de origen mixto. Adems, se pudo comprobar que muchos individuos se encontraban en condiciones de cautividad subptimas. Se enviaron recomendaciones a los zoolgicos instndoles a cooperar para evitar una mayor endogamia en la poblacin cautiva, a mejorar el diseo de sus instalaciones para la cra en cautividad de la especie y a convencer a las instituciones implicadas para que participasen en estudios genticos que ayu- dasen determinar las distintas subespecies. El problema de las subespecies es importante para el programa de reproduccin, debido a la gran difcultad que existe para gestionar cruces sin tener la certeza de cuntas subpoblaciones contiene la poblacin cautiva. Por otra parte, dado que sigue habiendo zoo- lgicos que participan en los proyectos de reintroduccin, es imprescindible conocer el origen de los individuos destinados a ser reintroducidos. Un gru- po de investigadores suizos participa en el muestreo gentico de linces y ya ha establecido un banco de datos para algunas de las subespecies. Mediante este programa se solicita a los zoolgicos que albergan esta especie a que co- laboren todo lo posible proporcionando muestras de subespecies conocidas. Almost 50% of the lynxes in captivity were of unknown origin, many reintroductions had been taking place, many lynxes were bred and many different studies were being conducted with the captive specimens. Through careful investigation of the studbook many discrepancies and problems were identifed. Specifcally, it was found out that the level of inbreeding in the captive population was very high. In addition, there were a large number of identifed lynxes of mixed genetic origin. Recommendations were sent out to zoos urging cooperation to avoid further inbreeding of the population, to improve enclosure design and husbandry procedures for this species and to convince involved institutions to participate in the genetic studies aimed at determination of the various subspecies. The subspecies problem is an important one for the programme, since it is very diffcult to manage the captive population if it is unclear how many subpopulations it consists of. Furthermore, as there are still zoos involved in reintroduction projects, it is imperative to fnd out the origin of lynxes that are targeted for reintroduction. A Swiss research group is currently involved in genetic sampling of lynxes and has already set up a databank for some subspecies. Zoos keeping lynxes are encouraged to cooperate as much as possible by providing samples of known subspecies. Afterwards, population numbers were drastically reduced as a result of habitat destruction, as well as due to hunting and trapping for their fur (Breitenmoser and Breitenmoser- Wrsten, 2008). In the second half of the twentieth century, legal protection helped the Eurasian lynx recover in the Northern countries. Also reintroduction programmes were established in certain areas of Central and Western Europe (von Arx et al. U Ge o G R a P h i c distRibution The Eurasian lynx is widespread throughout large forest tracks of northern Europe and Asia. Russia is the heartland of its range, which extends Eastwards into China and Southwards into the Northern fank of the Himalayas. Throughout this distribution range, different subpopulations have been described, although not all of them have been formally recognised. Justific ation f o R a eu R o P e a n st u d b o o K (esb) Why should a studbook be established for such a common species? Cu r r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o F t h e eu r a s i a n ly n x (a da p t e d F r o m breitenmoser a n d breitenmoser-Wrsten, 2008). Defning Subspecies: This was deemed necessary because almost 50% of the total captive population was of unknown origin or unspecifc status. Various reintroductions were taking place and the genetic origin of the released animals was unclear. Subsequently, all lynx holding institutions were contacted and asked to send their historical reports for this species. Through intensive searching and questioning many discrepancies were resolved, yet a lot of information remained unknown. The most important conclusion from this analysis was that the registered records of Eurasian lynxes in many institutions were very poor. Many institutions registered their lynxes as Lynx without subspecifc identifcation. Also, many institutions automatically registered them as the nominate subspecies Lynx lynx lynx. Also, the increase in number of lynxes that were identifed as mixed origin was also remarkable (from 0 to 27, according to survey comparisons). Given that the determination of different subspecies is still unclear and that many assumptions have been made without proper scientific studies (e. This means that animals that appear in the studbook listed as pure subspecies, may not be pure at all, or might belong to another subspecies (e. As lynxes are easily available to zoos, there had never been standardized husbandry recommendations for this species. Besides from following animal welfare standards, there were no reasons for zoos to invest in good husbandry procedures. One of the tasks of a breeding programme is to provide husbandry guidelines for the species to upgrade the husbandry and welfare standards for the species in captivity. But because there is less attention for lynx than there is for larger, charismatic mammals, not much pressure was put on compiling husbandry guidelines for lynxes. With the help of students, basic guidelines were developed but not formally published. Slowly, zoos are improving their facilities and presently asking for advice on how to design new lynx enclosures and how to take care of their captive animals.
Moderation in the consumption of not only beer but also other forms of alcohol is essential generic 40mg prednisolone mastercard allergy testing honolulu. Patients with hyperuricemia need to pay attention to weight management purchase cheap prednisolone online allergy shots for pet dander, including moderation in the intake of meat and seafood rich in cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and restraint in consumption of foods and drinks with noncomplex carbohydrates purchase discount prednisolone online allergy symptoms face numbness. Unfortunately, only 20% of patients seeking medical care are ready to change unhealthy behavior, including hazardous alcohol use and unhealthy eating habits (76). Further education and studies are needed to improve our understanding of dietary factors and hyperuricemia. Renal underexcretion of uric acid is present in patients with apparent high urinary uric acid output. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in individuals with small, dense, low density lipoprotein particles. Uric acid and coronary heart disease risk: evidence for a role of uric acid in the obesity-insulin resistance syndrome. Dietary alter- ations in plasma very low density lipoprotein levels modify renal excretion of urates in hyperuricemic- hypertriglyceridemic patients. Decreases in serum uric acid by amelioration of insulin resistance in overweight hypertensive patients: effect of a low-energy diet and an insulin-sensitizing agent. Adioposity, hypertension, diuretic use and risk of incident gout in women: The Nurses Health Study. Epidemiologic studies on coronary heart disease and stroke in Japanese men living in Japan, Hawaii and California: demographic, physical, dietary and biochemical characteristics. Effect of oral purines on serum and urinary uric acid of normal, hyperuricemic and gouty humans. Changes in serum and urinary uric acid levels in normal human subjects fed purine-rich foods containing different amounts of adenine and hypoxanthine. Assessment of the uricogenic potential of processed foods based on the nature and quantity of dietary purines. Serum uric acid correlates in elderly men and women with special reference to body composition and dietary intake (Dutch Nutrition Surveillance System). Effect of tofu (bean curd) ingestion and on uric acid metabolism in healthy and gouty subjects. High-protein diets in hyperlipidemia: effect of wheat gluten on serum lipids, uric acid, and renal function. Suppression of monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammation by diets enriched with gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Uric acid production of men fed graded amounts of egg protein and yeast nucleic acid. Replacement of carbohydrate by protein in a conventional-fat diet reduces cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in healthy normolipidemic subjects. Randomized trial on protein vs carbohydrate in ad libitum fat reduced diet for the treatment of obesity. Do high carbohydrate diets prevent the development or attenuate the manifestations (or both) of syndrome X? Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study. A casecontrol study of alcohol consumption and drinking behavior in patients with acute gout. Effect of sauna bathing and beer ingestion on plasma concentrations of purine bases. Ethanol-induced hyperuricemia: evidence for increased urate production by activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. The other symptoms include chronic pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue, which may lead to psychological distress. Key Words: Brain metabolism; dietary supplements; gut microflora; vegan diets; vitamins 1. Most of the patients are females who develop the illness between 40 and 60 years of age (2). The symptoms of fibromyalgia include chronic burning or gnawing pain, multiple tender points, sleep disturbances, and fatigue. The tender points are located in the muscle insertions at both sides of the body (3). No clear structural abnormalities have been found in their biopsies and no inflammation can be detected (4). Pain and fatigue often lead to psychological disturbances and depression is a common problem. Approximately every second patient attributes the onset of symptoms to an injury, infection, or other stress (4,5). The individual course of symptoms is variable, which also makes the diagnosis difficult. If the tenderness in palpation of at least 11 of these is found in a patient whose diffuse musculoskeletal pains have lasted at least 3 months, then the fibromyalgia diagnosis can be made. Simply identi- fying the diagnosis helps significantly in alleviating the patients suffering by assuring the patient that this disease is not dangerous, despite the suffering and the limited ability to work that it causes. Patients should be encouraged to continue working because it has been shown that when they stop working, their symptoms seem to worsen (4). As a nutritional approach for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases in general is poorly understood, it is easy to understand that the dietary treatment of fibromyalgia in particular is also not known. In all chronic diseases, nutritional status tends, however, to be altered and physical activity tends to be depressed. The first course of action should always be the correction of nutritional deficits, and only then should drug treatment be considered. Often, patients have tried a variety of drug treatments themselves, albeit with limited success. Many drugs may interfere with the normal regulation of food intake, which exacerbates the effect of the disease, per se, on nutritional status (8). Instead, patients are advised to eliminate or supplement their diet depending on their symptoms. Typically, patients with fibromyalgia have looked for alleviation of their symptoms by using different kinds of vegetarian diets or having specific remedy foods or supplements such as herbs, wheatgrass juice, or purified antioxidants. Theories on the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia have included alterations in neuro- transmitter regulation (especially serotonin); hormonal control problems (especially of the hypothalamicpituitaryadrenal and growth hormone axes); immune system dysfunction; problems in sleep physiology; abnormal perception of bodily sensa- tions; stress; viral pathologies; local hypoxia; and disturbances in muscle microcir- culation, adenosine monophosphate, and creatinine concentrations. Current evidence most strongly supports a neurochemical or neurohormonal hypothesis (1,9). The following sections focus on the brain functions, followed by nutritional inter- ventions for patients with fibromyalgia, especially vegan and vegetarian approaches.